Tag Archives: Amateur Radio

Ohio Section Journal – The Technical Coordinator – November 2017 edition

One of the responsibilities of the Technical Coordinator in the Ohio Section is to submit something for the Section Journal. The Section Journal covers Amateur Radio related things happening in and around the ARRL Ohio Section. It is published by the Section Manager Scott – N8SY and articles are submitted by cabinet members.

Once my article is published in the Journal, I will also make it available on my site with a link to the published edition.

You can receive the Journal and other Ohio Section news by joining the mailing list Scott has setup. You do not need to be a member of the ARRL, Ohio Section, or even a ham to join the mailing list. Please sign up!

If you are an ARRL member and reside in the Ohio Section, update your mailing preferences to receive Ohio Section news in your inbox. Those residing outside the section will need to use the mailing list link above.
Updating your ARRL profile will deliver news from the section where you reside (if the leadership chooses to use this method).
Go to www.arrl.org and logon.
Click Edit your Profile.
You will be taken to the Edit Your Profile page. On the first tab Edit Info, verify your Email address is correct.
Click the Edit Email Subscriptions tab.
Check the News and information from your Division Director and Section Manager box.
Click Save.

Now without further ado…

Read the full edition at: http://arrl-ohio.org/news/OSJ-November-17.pdf

Jeff Kopcak – TC

DSCF5081 K8JTKHey gang,
I’ve been playing around with a couple new radios. With the holidays approaching, these will make great gift ideas.

Cheap radios for new or young hams are hard to come by. Many opted for the under $30 Baeofung (or Pofung) UV-5R and for good reason. They’re cheap. Perfect options for new hams, young hams, or public service events were radios are prone to damage and misuse. Destroy it and its $30 vs a couple hundred, or 7, to replace. Cheap radios could replace older radios that maybe didn’t have PL, were lower power, or single band. You got what you paid for though. Inconsistencies in firmware versions lead to differing sets of features, programming software wasn’t easy to use, neither was installing the programming cable, complaints about the lack of support, and lack of a usable manual. I stopped using these radios because of the many tests proving they were good about transmitting everywhere at once (across the entire band). As hams we are given plenty of leeway in how we use our frequencies. It’s up to each of us to make sure our radios comply with Part 97 and do not interfere with other licensed radio services. The ARRL published their findings in a November 2015 QST article. Ohio Section Technical Specialist Dave – KD8TWG demonstrated this with a couple of radios he had purchased: https://kd8twg.net/2015/10/17/a-quick-and-unscientific-spectral-analysis-of-two-baofeng-radios/.

Ok, so don’t use these radios. What radio, that meets Part 97 requirements, is available for the price? This was a problem. There was no real option. About the cheapest dual-band radio was $150. DMR radios competed on price and features but, until recently, were only single band. I finally found a better option. Unfortunately, the company has “Baofeng” in the name which makes things even more confusing. A company called “Baofeng Tech” or BTech, is a US based company offering a similar radio called the UV-5X3 for under $60.

The radio looks and acts like a UV-5R. Baofeng Tech updates the firmware, modifies the radio installing better filtering on the transmitter, and includes an easy-to-read nicely printed 85 page manual. The UV-5X3 comes with all the same accessories including belt clip, antennas, charger, and ear piece. All original Baofeng accessories work too. To my surprise, they even squeezed in the 220 MHz (1.25m) band! Baofeng Tech assured me their radios meet spectral requirements for Part 97. I had mine tested at the Cleveland Hamfest by KD8TWG. On VHF the 3rd harmonic was a little higher than 40db down, UHF was spot-on. The CHRIP free programming software is the only programmer that currently works with this radio. RT Systems UV-5R programmer for the original Baofeng radios does not work with the UV-5X3.

Now there’s no excuse to get a very reasonably priced radio compliant with Part 97 spectral requirements. It even comes with free shipping if bought through Amazon. For someone looking to play around with 220, this is a great tri-bander radio. Check out this radio as an option, from a US company, for new or young hams: https://baofengtech.com/uv-5×3. Product images from Baofeng Tech.

I’ve wanted to install a dual-band DMR mobile radio in the shack. Yeah, all the DMR repeaters in the area are UHF. I like to have the flexibility of a dual-band. Connect Systems was one for the first, if not the first, to release a dual-band DMR mobile radio earlier this year. Talking with Jerry at Dayton (President of Connect Systems), they had just shipped the first batch of CS800D radios and were expecting to get another batch ‘in a couple months.’ I heard very good things from hams that have purchased from Jerry’s company previously. Connect Systems is accessible via email and social media for support, they worked to fully resolve product issues, fixed issues with firmware quickly, and let customers try out their new equipment while seeking feedback. I didn’t hesitate to get on the waiting list.

I finally got the radio at the beginning of August and I like it a lot. The radio itself looks like a Motorola CM300D or nearly identical in layout, including microphone, to the Kenwood TM-281A. Radio covers VHF: 136-174 @ 50W, UHF: 400-470 @ 45W. The head and microphone are removable and extendable with a cat5 Ethernet cable. It will hold 4,000 channels and 130,000 contacts with firmware updates – more contacts than the ENTIRE DMR-MARC user database! It’s got a couple quarks which I’m told are to be fixed in future firmware releases. Biggest annoyance being the display doesn’t always update after a button is pressed. The programming software is straight forward if you’ve ever programmed a DMR radio before. The Ohio Section website has a pre-built codeplug: http://arrl-ohio.org/digital/digital.html. N0GSG makes a great codeplug editor and codeplug converter that I found useful: http://n0gsg.com/contact-manager/. His editor now supports the CS800D, TYT MD2017 & MD9600.

The Connect Systems CS800D was a little pricey when I bought it ($399 + $15 for the programming cable) but has since dropped in price to $299. I feel this radio could have been more popular if the radio was not released in batches. Jerry was great about communicating and explaining the situation. Like any distributor, they were beholden to the timetables from their manufacturer. Nothing they could do about it. I think that allowed other options to enter the market sooner and resulted in lost potential sales. It’s a great radio and recommended for someone looking for a dual-band DMR mobile radio from a US based company. CS800D product page: http://www.connectsystems.com/products/top/radios%20CS800D.htm.

If you’ve picked up a CS800D, check the Software page for recent firmware updates: http://www.connectsystems.com/software/software%20CS800D.htm. Product image from Connect Systems.

Technical Specialist reports

Dave – KD8TWG has been busy as usual. In addition to testing radios at the Cleveland Hamfest, he tackled the issue of “operational security.” This has been a topic of discussion in the area as of late and on social media. He was seeing arguments that operational frequencies needed to be obscured for the purposes of “securing” an operation. Without encryption, there is no such thing. As Dave points out, any modern scanner can scan VHF and UHF bands within seconds. It’s even easier with SDR receivers that allow you to look at the entire band scope at once. Check out his post about Hiding Frequencies for “Operational Security”: https://kd8twg.net/2017/08/14/opsec/.

In October, another Section Technical Specialist, Jason – WG8B, gave a presentation to the Dayton Amateur Radio Association about his area of expertise: bike mobile operations. Jason provided feedback on his program:

The briefing focused on using bike mobile capabilities to support public service events and covered topics such as

  • Suitable antennas. Bikes are not good ground planes, and dual band antennas are important when supporting public service events from a bike since carrying extra antennas and swapping them out is not easy.
  • Speakers and microphones that work while bicycling while allowing you to safely operate a bike.
  • Properly mounting equipment to not only protect the equipment but also protect the bicycle and rider.
  • APRS operations from a bicycle

Most of the questions revolved around antennas. I won’t repeat specific questions to protect the innocent so to speak, so I’ll just clarify what I think good antenna requirements are for VHF/UHF bicycle mobile operations. First and especially when supporting public service events, omnidrectional antennas are absolutely required. On a bike, there is no practical way to steer antennas with directional patterns whether they be gain antennas or magnetic loops. You will be changing direction quite frequently, and you need to hit repeaters from any aspect. Second, high-Q antennas such as magnetic loops require precise tuning, something that’s not possible while on a bicycle. Stick to an antenna that does not require tuning. Your radio should be working for you while on a bike during public service events not the other way around. There’s already enough going on, and safety is first. Third, any antenna bigger or longer than a bicycle flag is not likely safe. There are balance issues with weight above the bike’s center-of-gravity, and just about the worst shape aerodynamically is an antenna. So how hard do you want to pedal? Also, I’ve had problems with low hanging branches with just a bicycle flag. Anything taller is going to be problematic. My recommendation is still to use a dual band J pole like Ed Fong’s DBJ-2 taped to a bike flag or a single band half wave dipole like Larson’s NMO 150B HW. While not the absolutely best antennas performance-wise, they will still hit every repeater in my local area and then some with a 5W HT. And these are very simple and small form factor antennas that just work and won’t get in the way when on a bike.

Finally, if you would like to see the briefing, I’ve made it accessible here: https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B2Yn-_hki2v0blFnNVVRbW9kc3c

Jason’s presentation has lots of tips and pictures for making a bicycle mobile installation a success. If you would like to have Jason at your meeting, drop him a note!

Thanks for reading and 73… de Jeff – K8JTK

Ohio Section Journal – The Technical Coordinator – September 2017 edition

One of the responsibilities of the Technical Coordinator in the Ohio Section is to submit something for the Section Journal. The Section Journal covers Amateur Radio related things happening in and around the ARRL Ohio Section. It is published by the Section Manager Scott – N8SY and articles are submitted by cabinet members.

Once my article is published in the Journal, I will also make it available on my site with a link to the published edition.

You can receive the Journal and other Ohio Section news by joining the mailing list Scott has setup. You do not need to be a member of the ARRL, Ohio Section, or even a ham to join the mailing list. Please sign up!

If you are an ARRL member and reside in the Ohio Section, update your mailing preferences to receive Ohio Section news in your inbox. Those residing outside the section will need to use the mailing list link above.
Updating your ARRL profile will deliver news from the section where you reside (if the leadership chooses to use this method).
Go to www.arrl.org and logon.
Click Edit your Profile.
You will be taken to the Edit Your Profile page. On the first tab Edit Info, verify your Email address is correct.
Click the Edit Email Subscriptions tab.
Check the News and information from your Division Director and Section Manager box.
Click Save.

Now without further ado…

Read the full edition at: http://arrl-ohio.org/news/OSJ-September-17.pdf

Jeff Kopcak – TC

DSCF5081 K8JTKHey gang,

Last couple articles have been features so this month is a lot of odds-and-ends…

System Fusion

Last month’s article covering many System Fusion issues sparked some feedback as one might imagine. It was split.

One group in the section was using an external controller and was having a DR-1X repeater lock-up problem. They troubleshot the issue and with “additional circuity” resolved their issue. One disputed my assertion the repeater is two FTM-400 radios, but didn’t provide any details to the contrary. Having opened up LEARA’s DR-1X and upgraded the firmware, one radio looks exactly like the 400 (minus the speaker). Additionally, the firmware upgrade process was identical to my 400. Arguably, the transmit radio could be different but it’s hard to really tell with the heatsink mounted on top.

On the opposite end, a club in the section is completely frustrated with how Yaesu treated them as customers. They’ve attempted to call and email no less than 6 Yaesu representatives asking for details on promotions, hardware specifications, or answer to questions but never heard a word. They believe ‘Yaesu has lost any competitive edge they had by flooding the market with Fusion gear.’ Though I agree, I have not experienced this particular problem with my inquiries to support. My emails have been answered within a day or so – usually confirming suspicions I heard elsewhere. Seemingly ignoring customers is bad for business. Though customers feel they are being ignored, it may be a management attempt to better coordinate internal communication before going public. You’re doing it wrong, but it is a possibility. As pointed out previously, statements of fact made countless times are suddenly reversed and changed at release.

To clarify a point, the FTM-400 radio does operate both A & B sides of the radio simultaneously. My issue is, for their high-end offering of a mobile radio, it should be able to operate Fusion from both A & B sides of the radio at the same time. It does not. The A side can operate Fusion digital or FM. B only operates FM. Operating Fusion digital from both sides is one nice feature of the FT2D.

It didn’t take long before I started hearing the DMR arguments. DMR does have issues too but I see them as growing pains. It’s not: ‘this crashes, this locks up in transmit, this doesn’t work until you get a factory upgrade, need to spend $$$ to work around a shortcoming, upgrade to get the full power output, something can’t be fixed because there is no published specification…’ the list goes on. I’ve covered DMR issues here before and have noted most of them in my DMR Terminology and Programming a Code Plug learning series: http://www.k8jtk.org/category/amateur-radio/dmr-in-amateur-radio/.

Background checks, public service, & saving lives

The era of submitting to a background and credit check before helping out with fund-raising public service events is upon us. The local Multiple Sclerosis Society in Cleveland hosts a 150 mile (or so) bike ride every year. This used to be called “Pedal to the [Cedar] Point” but was renamed “Buckeye Breakaway” when the ride changed destinations to Ashland University. Last year, the MS society pushed for all volunteers to run a full background check. This included all ham, SAG (Support and Gear), and medical units – whether they were mobile or stationary at rest stops. Failing to complete the required check or failing the check would mean that person couldn’t volunteer or participate. This request was sprung on the ham and medical coordinators a few weeks out form the event. Citing time constraints and the amount of push back from volunteers, eventually the required check was no longer required but not after some had already completed the investigation.

This year, the MS society required a background investigation and proof of liability insurance for SAG drivers. Though I was not transporting riders, I too had to submit because I was the shadow of an MS staff person for the event. The investigation service stated a ‘credit check’ would be part of the reporting, though the society said it would not be a factor for eligibility.

Like many organizations, the MS Society is going through its share of layoffs, reorganizations, and centralization. The Cleveland chapter had little recourse since the background check was mandated from HQ. I suspect this will become the norm rather than the exception in the legal, CYA, society we live in. It sure takes the fun out of doing a public service event and not sure I want to give up that much personally identifiable information again for a fundraiser event. Then again, Equafax hands out PII data to anyone who can gain access to their systems.

That issue aside, a real life threatening event happened. Ham and medical volunteers dealt with a roll-over accident involving one of the cyclists in the event, a utility pole, and a parked car – all because of an impatient driver. This happened in Medina County near Valley City. The accident was radioed in by a ham volunteer. Other hams were on scene along with the Northeast Ohio Medical Response Corps to triage the situation. NEOMRC is a group of volunteers who provide medial support services for events and nearly all are licensed hams. The injured cyclist was life-flighted to a nearby hospital. The driver, who caused the accident, left the scene. By late afternoon, the story was all over the local news: http://fox8.com/2017/08/05/cyclist-struck-by-car-during-race-in-medina-county/. Fortunately, no one was killed. Img: Brunswick Hills Firefighters.


To commemorate the 20th anniversary of Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS), a slow scan TV event was held July 20th and ran for 3 days. During these events, SSTV transmissions originate from the International Space Station as it orbits in space. No special setup is required to copy the images. To receive the best images, Yagi antennas on a tracking tripod is best. I just use my external VHF antenna and let the radio listen for transmissions. Images sent featured different ARISS activities over the past 20 years. Check out the images 34 images I received: http://www.k8jtk.org/2017/08/03/sstv-transmissions-from-the-international-space-station-july-2017-edition/. If you want to get started in SSTV, check out the links to my getting started tutorial of MMSSTV in that post. I will also be giving my SSTV presentation at the Geauga Amateur Radio Association meeting on September 25, 2017 at 7:30 in the Geauga County Emergency Operations Center. More on the meeting: https://geaugaara.org/.

2017 Eclipse & WSPR

I contributed to the radio sciences taking place around the solar eclipse. I didn’t get to travel to an area of totality or even take off work. Instead I worked a number of the special event stations in the surrounding days. Still have to send away for my certificate. Since I didn’t take off work or do anything unusual, my contribution to the “eclipse QSO party” was to leave WSPR decoding signals and upload the spots. Scientists are hoping to learn more about eclipses and effects they have on the atmosphere and radio propagation from those spots.

WSPR stands for Weak Signal Propagation Reporting Network. If you have WSJT-X installed, WSPR is included in that package. WSPR is intended to be a QRP mode because each receive and transmit window is 2 minutes. It works like a beacon network based on timed transmissions like JT65, JT9, and FT8. Each band has 200 Hz of bandwidth designated for WSPR. A transmitting station will digitally transmit their call sign, grid square, and dBm (power output). Similar to the JT’s, the signal report (DB), time difference between the two clocks, and drift are calculated by the receiving station. Decoded signals are uploaded as spots to the WSPR Net website. The data is crunched and used to draw real-time maps of propagation. More: http://wsprnet.org/

Technical Specialist Reports

In Technical Specialist news, Dave – KD8TWG held a “Test and Tune” night for LEARA. Communications and spectrum analyzers were brought in to tune radios that might be off frequency or show how much those Baofeng radios do transmit everywhere at once. Contact Dave or a section Specialist to bring this educational and eye-opening experience to your club meeting.

In addition, KD8TWG would like to thank everyone who came out and worked the 195th Great Geauga County Fair. Dave was in charge of the communications and networking for golf cart drivers who transported fair goers to and from their cars. Golf carts were equipped with APRS for location tracking. A WiFi network based on the Mikrotik NV2 protocol was built for two weeks. NV2 is a proprietary WiFi protocol based on TDMA in the 5.1-5.8 GHz range. The advantage of TDMA wireless is better throughput and lower latency in point-to-point or point-to-multipoint networks. Traditional WiFi is built on a Carrier sensed collision avoidance system where nodes transmit only when they sense the channel is idle. Dave points out, this is NOT mesh. Over the wireless network, they ran a phone system and IP cameras. The Sherriff’s Office was impressed with the video coverage and wants to run more cameras next year. By the numbers: 60 volunteers worked 1,284 hours, with just under 700 golf cart transports. Dave ate approximately 47,000 calories in fried food. Imgs: KD8TWG.

Technical Regulation Reform

An ARNewsline report (#2080) points out the FCC Technical Advisory Council is looking for opinions and suggestions to update existing technical regulations or to adopt new ones. “The FCC wants the council to single out any rules that are obsolete or in need of being brought up-to-date. The Council also wants comments on how the agency’s regulatory process on specific technical rules could become more efficient. The agency stresses that the issues being considered are those of a technical nature.” Thoughts or opinions can be filed in ET Docket 17-215 or with the ARRL. October 30th is the deadline. More: http://www.arrl.org/news/fcc-technological-advisory-council-investigating-technical-regulations


I’ve only participated in two Fox Hunts. The first time, I came in dead last. Second time, came in second. No idea how that happened because no skills were honed at all. The Ham Radio 360 podcast had an episode with Larry Jacobs – WA7ZBO talking all about Fox Hunts. Surprising to me was the Tape measure antenna is very popular even among serious hunters. As for gear, an antenna, attenuator, and radio are needed. In the absence of an attenuator, your body could be used to attenuate signals. Larry talked about some dos and don’ts. He encouraged hamfests to hold hunts to ‘whet the appetite.’ The most popular hunts are races with mileage and time restrictions to keep things safe. Don’t make the hunt too hard where participants get discouraged and don’t want to ever participate again. Always use public property. Use common sense and don’t be a wise guy. For example, a convention had the fox located near the hotel pool. When someone asked what everyone was doing with antennas around the hotel, someone responded with ‘a Soviet Satellite with a radioactive payload went down near here.’ Guests couldn’t check out of the hotel fast enough. The hotel asked this group not to return. While funny, don’t be that guy. Instead have ARRL handouts and pamphlets about ham radio when someone asks. The episode can be found at: http://hamradio360.com/index.php/2017/07/25/ham-radio-360-fox-hunting-transmitter-bunnies-too/

Last Man Standing & Frequency TV shows

Many have heard by now the Tim Allen show “Last Man Standing” was canceled by ABC and possibly looking for a new home. Tim Allen plays a fictional ham radio operator using the call sign KA0XTT. The show was popular among politically conservative individuals and ham radio operators. According to ARNewsline (#2069), talks fell through for the show and it will not be returning with new episodes. The show will soon be removed from Netflix as 20th Century Fox struck a deal with Hulu for exclusive rights to their catalog, which includes Last Man Standing. Hulu is a premium service for streaming TV and moves. Channels carrying reruns include: CMT, Hallmark, Freeform, and The CW. Also on CW was the TV spinoff of the move Frequency, it too was canceled.

TYT MD-2017 Broken Antenna Connectors

If you purchased an early Tytera MD-2017 DMR dual-band radio and the antenna connector broke, contact your dealer. This appears to be a first-run issue and TYT has shipped replacement connector parts to their dealers. Replacing the connector requires opening the radio and soldering. If you’re not comfortable, ask if the dealer will do the work or swap the radio.

Thanks for reading, 73, and Go Tribe!… de Jeff – K8JTK

Ohio Section Journal – The Technical Coordinator – August 2017 edition

One of the responsibilities of the Technical Coordinator in the Ohio Section is to submit something for the Section Journal. The Section Journal covers Amateur Radio related things happening in and around the ARRL Ohio Section. It is published by the Section Manager Scott – N8SY and articles are submitted by cabinet members.

Once my article is published in the Journal, I will also make it available on my site with a link to the published edition.

You can receive the Journal and other Ohio Section news by joining the mailing list Scott has setup. You do not need to be a member of the ARRL, Ohio Section, or even a ham to join the mailing list. Please sign up!

If you are an ARRL member and reside in the Ohio Section, update your mailing preferences to receive Ohio Section news in your inbox. Those residing outside the section will need to use the mailing list link above.
Updating your ARRL profile will deliver news from the section where you reside (if the leadership chooses to use this method).
Go to www.arrl.org and logon.
Click Edit your Profile.
You will be taken to the Edit Your Profile page. On the first tab Edit Info, verify your Email address is correct.
Click the Edit Email Subscriptions tab.
Check the News and information from your Division Director and Section Manager box.
Click Save.

Now without further ado…

Read the full edition at: http://arrl-ohio.org/news/OSJ-August-17.pdf

Jeff Kopcak – TC

DSCF5081 K8JTKHey gang,

Yaesu and System Fusion. I’ve talked about it before and mentioned the DR-1X repeater promotion some time ago. My recent dealings are leaving me more disappointed in the quality of the offering. With the announcement of System Fusion II, I hope they take time to finally fix problems with their implementation.

Around the beginning of 2015, Yaesu, in an effort to get their digital mode into the ham radio market, offered a promotional deal for their Fusion repeater at a cost of $500 (~$1,700 retail). The logic behind this is the shaver and blade principal: sell the repeater for cheap and make up the cost in selling radios. The repeater is dual-mode capable (C4FM digital and analog) featuring high power (50W) transmitter, switched commercial power and battery backup, integration with an existing repeater controller, all in a standard 2U rack unit. Not only could a club or individual purchase a digital repeater for cheap, it wasn’t a requirement of the promotion to enable any of the digital Fusion features. This meant it could replace aging analog repeaters. I’ve even heard old tube repeaters were being replaced as a result. Now, I’m sure they hoped owners utilized the Fusion features but either way, the program ended up being a huge success. In the Cleveland area, there are about 10 in operation that I’m aware of. Yaesu brought affordable and a somewhat-hackable (AllStar, MMDVM) repeater package to the market.

Then came the complaints. First being the DR-1X is two FTM-400 mobile radios linked with a basic controller. For some reason, many are surprised by this setup and thought better radios should be used. This is a common design that D-STAR and DMR commercial repeaters also rely on. However, this setup had a problem; the radios used were not designed to operate high power. Either through component design or improper cooling, the radios are not capable of operating 100% duty cycle at 50W. I have not heard of this being a wide-spread problem with D-STAR and DMR repeaters running high power. Yaesu updated their promotional form and website to say “Duty cycle is 50% at 50 Watts, 100% at 20 Watts in a climate controlled environment.” To get 50 watts or more, external amplifiers are needed.

Automatic Mode Select was one of the great selling points – a single repeater could switch between digital and analog depending on the signal. But reports of repeaters in AMS where locking up in a transmit state. It was discovered when the repeater had a signal on the input (digital or analog), if another signal was detected of the opposite type, the repeater would lockup in transmit. To reset, the power had to be cycled. A work around was to set the repeater in either analog or digital only mode or install a remote power switch. To my knowledge, this was never acknowledged and was deemed to be “environmental site issues.” That might be true or related to reports of poor selectivity on the front-end of the repeater. Filters and firmware upgrades helped solve some of these issues.

Other known problems include: external controller support is complicated – at best, receive PL decode problems, repeater identifications being cut-off, and the firmware. The firmware is absurd. There are three firmware “channels” (or tracks) for the DR-1X repeater. Each completely separate and not compatible with the other – that is you cannot upgrade the repeater firmware from one channel to another. For reference, these are the 1.00b, 1.00f, and 1.10D channels. Upgrading to a newer version (on the same channel) requires taking the machine out of the cabinet, unscrew about 18 screws to access the data port inside, upgrade the firmware, and put it all back. It is nearly a two person job as the thing weights 22 lbs.

My club in Cleveland, LEARA, purchased a DR-1X. I got it on the air with some help from Bill K8SGX (a section TS). It was on the air at 20 watts in digital only mode. We didn’t have any issues. One of the club members suggested “let’s connect this to the internet.” This is where my perception of Fusion got much worse. As confirmed by Yaesu support, to directly connect an HRI-200 Wires-X node, the DR-1X must have firmware 1.10J or later. Owners with 1.00-anything firmware MUST ship the DR-1X back to Yaesu for an upgrade at owner’s expense. 22 lbs shipping plus box and insurance, it was not cheap. Specific situations may vary and return shipping is covered. They will not let you swap anything yourself because they felt upgrades where beyond most owners’ ability. Owners on the 1.10D channel just need to apply firmware upgrades.

To be fair, an RF link to the repeater can be established with any firmware version. This entails setting up a HRI-200 on a Windows PC with an additional FTM-100 or FTM-400 radio at a location with a strong signal into the repeater. This setup acts like a local user of the repeater. Transmissions from the Internet are transmitted on the repeater’s input. Local repeater transmissions are relayed to the Internet by listening to the repeater’s output frequency. LEARA decided to directly link the HRI-200 Wires-X device to the repeater. Other devices like an OpenSpot or MMDVM could be used but would not provide Wires-X access as it is a closed network.

I haven’t followed the radio issues too closely. There have been 2nd generations of two Fusion radios this far. The FT1-DR was replaced by the FT1-XDR and FTM-400 by the FTM-400XDR because the GPS chip used had problems locking on to signals. I have the FTM-400XDR and picked up a FT2DR at Dayton. Both radios work and get the job done but I’m not blown away by either radio. To put the 400 over the top, it would need to operate Fusion from both A & B sides of the radio, at the same time. I’m underwhelmed by the FT2 screen as it’s not very sharp. I’ve always found Yaesu menu groupings and labeling confusing. The much-loved bank link feature of their analog radios, such as the VX-8, is missing.

Word of warning to anyone using Yaesu Fusion radios and is especially important for repeater owners and Wires-X node operators, keep up-to-date with firmware and program updates! It has been confirmed in the Yahoo Group, every time an FT-70 radio is keyed on a Wires-X node with software version v1.2 or earlier, the Wires-X node will crash.

In addition to all these issues, no full specification has been released for Fusion or Wires-X. Meaning if Wires-X gets shutdown, all nodes are offline. With an open source specification, a new network could be developed or rolled into the FCS reflector or YSFReflector networks. In true hacker fashion, much of Fusion has been reverse engineered so it’s probably more of a reality than I know.

A Reddit posting appeared proclaiming “System Fusion II” is coming with an accompanying info graphic and FAQ posted on the Yaesu System Fusion Yahoo Group. The info graphic states ‘firmware upgrades will enable System Fusion II compatibility with all existing C4FM products.’ I gather this doesn’t mean the radio needs to be sent back to Yaesu. The FT1-(X)DR is discontinued but the FAQ reiterates all existing radios will receive a Fusion II firmware upgrade.

At the center is the new DR-2X repeater – which supposedly resolves most problems of the 1X – and includes many new features. Originally, Wires-X was not supported at all on the DR-2X. This was stated many times by Yaesu. The FAQ indicates the 2X will support the HRI-200 (direct connect) OR IMRS (Internet Multi-site Repeater link) option. It will not support both. The IMRS option sounds a lot like DMR IP Site Connect where repeaters are linked over the Internet using Talk group-like functionality. There is another promotional program offering a trade-in path from a DR-1X to a DR-2X for $300 without the site linking option and $500 with site linking. See the Yahoo Group as I don’t see this promotion information anywhere else.

DSQ (Digital Squelch, squelch code) is replaced by DG-ID (digital group ID). DSQ has caused controversy even locally because it is a global setting in the radio, not per channel. This is a real pain if two repeaters in the area choose different DSQ codes. I left it disabled on LEARA’s allowing any Fusion user to use the repeater. A DG-ID use-case example on a repeater: use the repeater locally might be DG-ID 71. To use two IMRS sites might be DG-ID 90, and all sites DG-ID 99. A DP-ID is a priority override or used for remote control of the system on the 2X only.

Fusion up to this point seems rushed, untested, and like most companies today, driven by marketing. The mentality being: ‘get it out now, fix it later.’ I really hope Yaesu gets their act together soon if they want Fusion to survive. This will likely require drastic business and management changes within the company. As I see it, Fusion survival requires fixing its perception, fixing the software issues, producing better quality devices/radios including extensive testing, and showing commitment to the community and developers by releasing protocol specifications or open-sourcing the technology.

Reddit post: https://www.reddit.com/r/amateurradio/comments/6t8t5z/yaesu_system_fusion_ii/

Yahoo Group (membership requires approval): https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/YaesuSystemFusion/info

Thanks for reading and 73… de Jeff – K8JTK

SSTV Transmissions from the International Space Station – July 2017 edition

ARISS to Celebrate 20th Anniversary with SSTV Event recently concluded. The event was supposed to run two days but ran close to four days.  ARISS Posts Descriptions of SSTV Images Transmitted from ISS.  Check the ISS tag for my other ISS SSTV posts.

Station setup: MP Antennas Classic Mobile NMO Antenna – This is a local company in Cleveland and were reviewed in QST. Been using their antennas for a long time with great success. Since the antenna is multi-polarized (the MP in the company name), it is supposed to be a good substitution for receiving satellite transmissions without a directional antenna and not worrying about Doppler Shift (which needs to be accounted for in some cases). The height is about 15 feet.

The antenna was connected to my ICOM IC-7000 with DSP settings turned off on 145.800 MHz FM. Used this radio only because my SignaLink USB is connected to it and the one I use for digital operation on all bands. MMSSTV is the Slow-Scan TV program I use.

I have tutorials available to help get your station setup and getting started with MMSSTV to receive images from the ISS.

I received 34 images total from my location near Cleveland (EN91bl).

2017-07-21 0259 UTC
2017-07-21 0435 UTC
2017-07-21 0612 UTC
2017-07-21 0749 UTC
2017-07-21 0753 UTC
2017-07-21 0929 UTC
2017-07-21 1105 UTC
2017-07-22 0341 UTC
2017-07-22 0345 UTC
2017-07-22 0520 UTC
2017-07-22 0656 UTC
2017-07-22 0700 UTC
2017-07-22 0833 UTC
2017-07-22 0836 UTC
2017-07-22 1011 UTC
2017-07-23 0113 UTC
2017-07-23 0117 UTC
2017-07-23 0249 UTC
2017-07-23 0254 UTC
2017-07-23 0426 UTC
2017-07-23 0430 UTC
2017-07-23 0605 UTC
2017-07-23 0741 UTC
2017-07-23 0918 UTC
2017-07-23 0922 UTC
2017-07-23 1055 UTC
2017-07-24 0158 UTC
2017-07-24 0334 UTC
2017-07-24 0338 UTC
2017-07-24 0511 UTC
2017-07-24 0515 UTC
2017-07-24 0650 UTC
2017-07-24 0826 UTC
2017-07-24 0831 UTC

Digital Communications in Amateur Radio: Narrow Band Emergency Messaging System (NBEMS)

This article appeared in the The Wood County Amateur Radio Club newsletter CQ Chatter August 2017 edition.

Read the rest of the series in the Digital Communications in Amateur Radio articles category.

Have you ever been involved with an EmComm/ARES drill and heard digital tones as forms were being passed over a repeater? You may have wondered what application are they using, what mode, or how do they know what form is being sent? Chances are they utilized an established standard called NBEMS. The Narrow-Band Emergency Messaging System was created to pass text based messages and forms used by hams and other served agencies over Amateur Radio. Technicians, listen up! NBEMS includes standard modes for HF SSB and is very popular on VHF/UHF FM.

NBEMS was established in collaboration between David Freese, Jr. – W1HKJ who created and maintains the Fldigi suite of applications and Skip Teller – KH6TY who created DigiPan, a popular PSK application. The philosophy specifies utilizing radios, software, and hardware readily available and widely used in ham radio. Older equipment and older computers can be used meaning it would be relatively inexpensive. There would be no steep learning curve but flexible in an emergency situation. Finally, must be independent of infrastructure. No need for Internet, nodes, or existing communications systems. Power the computer, radio, interface, and you’re off-and-running.

Interfaces between the computer and radio used for other digital modes work best. In accordance with the flexible and inexpensive philosophy, another option is available: no interface at all. That’s right, you don’t need any interface between a computer and radio in order to communicate. To receive data, the radio speaker is held to the computer microphone. To transmit, the radio microphone is held to the computer speaker. This method is called an “acoustic interface.” It’s a game saver in a pinch, doesn’t require any additional hardware, and allows anyone with a radio and PC to participate. The digital protocols used are robust enough to deal with ambient noise, casual conversations, too much audio, too little audio, and still be able to decode 100%.

Though operating without an interface sounds like the best of all possible options, there are serious drawbacks. Transmitting (PTT) is done manually. Longer messages mean the operator has to hold PTT in longer. If their finger accidentally slips off the button, the message needs to be retransmitted. The operator needs to be more attentive to the station where it’s possible they may become distracted and miss messages. In a conference or war room, transmitting and receiving messages acoustically adds a layer of disruption to the setting. A connected interface would handle the keying, always provide audio to the computer for decoding messages – even while away from the station, and would not generate any additional noise effectively allowing the station to be completely quiet. As a whole, digital modes are not designed to work through an acoustic interface because most are sensitive to noise. Noise introduces errors making all or part of the transmission unrecoverable. An acoustic interface is a good way to practice or start, though the efficiency of a connected interface will soon be realized.

NBEMS utilizes two different modes: VHF/UHF uses MT63-2000L, HF uses Olivia 8/500. Both were developed by Pawel – SP9VRC.

It is surmised that 25% of the characters in an MT63 transmission can be lost and the receiving station will still have a perfect copy. This is achieved by encoding characters over the time and frequency domains for robustness. In addition, the “L” versions have additional (long) interleaves providing even more error correction. MT63 is very forgiving of audio levels and tuning errors making it a great choice for EmComm. The suffix indicates bandwidth used, 2000/2K means 2 KHz. Transfer rate is about 1 KB/minute.

Olivia 8/500 is used on HF because signals can be decoded below the noise. Low power and QRP stations can communicate nearly as effectively as a higher power station. A channelized approach is used because signals below the noise can be decoded but not heard or seen on the waterfall. The 8/500 indicates 8 tones utilizing 500 Hz of bandwidth. Fldigi suite reverses these in places, 500-8. Transfer rate is about 170 bytes/minute.

A common question brings up the issue of popularity. PSK31 and JT65 are two popular modes on HF. Both are not used in NBEMS because there is no error correction for weak or fading signals in PSK. A faster, multicarrier PSK-R (for Robust) mode is occasionally used in NBEMS but I have not seen many groups use it as an established standard. JT65 is limited to 48 second timed transmissions of 13 characters which is not efficient for data transfer.

Two applications are synonymous with NBEMS: Fldigi and Flmsg. In the last article, I talked about Fldigi being one of the more popular multimode applications. Flmsg is another application in the Fldigi suite that manages forms. It can be used to send standardized agency forms like ICS, Red Cross, or MARS. Forms developed by local agencies can be coded as a “custom form.” Plain text (.txt) and comma-separated (.csv) files can be transferred. Sticking to the inexpensive and flexible philosophy, the entire Fldigi suite of applications are free, open source, and cross platform available on Windows, Mac, and Linux including Raspberry Pi. Custom forms are a popular use of Flmsg however, these forms need to be disseminated or available online ahead of time.

Other applications like DM780 and MultiPSK can send and receive both MT63 and Olivia. These don’t have provisions for managing forms or validating transmissions. Fldigi and Flmsg are integrated seamlessly to pass data between the form manager and modem application.

A very important behind the scenes, but not often discussed feature in NBEMS is the checksum. In computing, a checksum is used to detect errors in transmission or in storage. Flmsg automatically generates and includes a checksum as part of the message with each transmission. Receiving stations calculate a checksum value based on the data received and compare it against the value included in the message. This is an ease-of-use feature letting receiving stations know if they received a prefect copy of the message. If the checksum matches, Flmsg will open displaying the form or message. If the checksum fails, this means an error was introduced in transmission. As a result, the message will not open or a “Checksum failed” prompt will be seen.

Example message:

... start
[WRAP:beg][WRAP:lf][WRAP:fn K8JTK_Digital_Communications_in_Amateur_Radio-_NBEMS.p2s]<flmsg>4.0.2
K8JTK 20171807024326
K8JTK 20171807024320
:tt:46 Digital Communications in Amateur Radio: NBEMS
:to:6 Reader
:fm:5 K8JTK
:dt:10 2017-07-17
:tm:5 2233L
:sb:12 Demo message
:mg:44 This is an example message in an NBEMS form.
[WRAP:chksum 2CBF][WRAP:end]
... end

A checksum value is included in the “WRAP” tags and is 2CBF for this message. Upon receipt of this message, Fldigi automatically calculates a checksum for verification. If it arrives at the value of 2CBF, the message was received perfectly.

There are limitations of NBEMS that users and served agencies need to be aware. To meet FCC requirements, all data must be transmitted within 3 minutes on a repeater with a standard time-out-timer or 10 minutes on simplex. This means a maximum file size for MT63-2KL on a repeater is 3,000 bytes and 1,700 bytes for Olivia 8/500 on simplex. These properties severely limit the content that can be transferred to text. Word documents need to be converted to TXT and Excel spreadsheets to CSV files in order to save bandwidth. There are not many useful images, Word documents, Excel spreadsheets, and executable programs under 3K. This makes high-resolution images and large data transfers impractical using NBEMS. Remember, it is a Narrow-Band Emergency Messaging System.

Reminder: review the first two articles in the series for information that will be omitted here including some modes operate your transceiver at 100% duty cycle, use upper sideband (USB), and don’t drive the transmitter with too much audio as the signal will be wider than intended. Operating data over FM is the same as operating voice and does not change the duty cycle of the radio. However, operating FM at high power for prolonged periods of time is considered extreme for most radios and will likely shorten the life of the transceiver. In addition, review the fourth article on “Conversational Modes” as Fldigi was covered.

With Fldigi setup and working, download and install Flmsg from http://www.w1hkj.com/. To prepare Fldigi for VHF/UHF NBEMS, click Op Mode, select MT63, and click MT63-2000L. MT63-2000L is also abbreviated as MT63-2KL in other places within the Fldigi suite. These are the same, 2K = 2000. With MT63-2KL selected as the active mode, now center the receive window on the waterfall at 1500. 1500 Hz is the standardized center frequency. For HF NBEMS, replace MT63-2000L references with Olivia 8-500.

Fldigi passes data to Flmsg for decoding and displaying. Fldigi needs to know where to find the Flmsg installation. In Fldigi, click Configure, select Miscellaneous, then click Misc to enter the Miscellaneous program options. Finally, click the NBEMS tab. In newer versions of Fldigi (later than 3.23.0), uncheck the Transfer direct to executing flmsg. Open with flmsg and Open in browser should be checked if they are not already. Now click Locate flmsg. Depending on the version of Windows, the default installation location for Flmsg will be C:\Program Files (x86)\flmsg-x.x.x or C:\Program Files\flmsg-x.x.x. In that directory, select the flmsg application, click Open. Click Save, then Close.

“x86” is a Windows designation to differentiate 32 bit from 64 bit applications on a Windows 64 bit installation. “x.x.x” is the version of Flmsg. Each time a new version of Fldigi, Flmsg, or any other Fldigi application is installed, it is kept in a separate directory with the version appended. Alot of versions can accumulate on a system if frequently updated. Anytime uninstalling or using a new version of Flmsg, the steps above for “locating flmsg” need to be repeated.

Start Flmsg. A dialog prompting for the selection of a “Default User Interface” will be seen on a new installation, click Communicator/Expert. Station information will be requested. These are used as inputs for some forms. Call sign should be filled in as a minimum. Click the red “X” when done filling in station information. At the bottom of the main Flmsg window is the mode selector. Click the down arrow and select MT63-2KL.

Configuration is done!

To use Flmsg, a blank Radiogram will open initially. To select a different form, click Form. Different types of available forms are categorized: ICS, MARS, Radiogram, Red Cross, weather, and custom forms loaded will be available from this menu. Choose any form for practice. Standard practice is to note somewhere in the form that this is a “test,” “practice,” or “drill.” As with voice, someone may mistake the transmission for a real message.

Once the form is filled out, set your radio to the appropriate frequency and open Fldigi if it is not already. Set it to MT63-2KL centered at 1500. Verify the mode selected in Flmsg is MT63-2KL. Click AutoSend. The file must be saved before it will transmit. Once the file is saved, transmission will begin automatically. Get into this habit of checking transmit frequency, Fldigi configuration and Flmsg configuration before clicking AutoSend. Otherwise you will inadvertently transmit on a different frequency or in a different mode. It happens to everyone eventually.

Receiving stations only need to open Fldigi. They will first see the message appear in the Fldigi receive pane. The form type is transmitted as part of the message. In the example message, <plaintext>. The lines begin with the form field name and check of the number of characters in that field. “:fm:5 K8JTK” is the “from” field with a check of 5 characters, “K8JTK“. When completed, an Flmsg window will open. The form will also be rendered in the default web browser. Receiving stations don’t have to do a thing except wait for the transmission to complete. If the next message received is a Radiogram, Flmsg will automatically open a window and browser page displaying the Radiogram format.

That’s it for using NBEMS! I have a more detailed setup and walk through of installing and configuring Fldigi and Flmsg. My instructions include another Fldigi suite application called Flwrap. Flwrap allows files of any type to be transferred. It sounded, at one point, like it was going to be part of the standard set of NBEMS applications but never made it due to the file size constraints. Additionally, Flmsg performs similar functionality to Flwrap in its ability to send TXT & CSV files. The Flwrap parts can be skipped unless they are found useful.

Typically, you’ll need to setup a sked or hold a net to pass messages around. Operators don’t sit around watering holes sending Flmsg messages, though I have seen it! Use news on QRZ.com or ARRL Ohio Section updates as text to fill out the forms as practice. Participating in a couple different nets, there seems to be less problems when everyone is using the same versions of the applications.

An Android smart phone app is available at the same site as Fldigi called AndFlmsg. There is a INSTALL.txt file with install instructions. The app is not available through any of the Android app stores and must be installed by temporarily enabling the option to allow applications from “Unknown sources.” A user guide is available in the same directory as the download. This will be helpful as the interface is not entirely intuitive.

The Ohio Digital Emergency Net (OHDEN) is a weekly HF practice net that uses the Olivia standard. Checkins and coordination is accomplished using the text input box in Fldigi. There is no voice coordination. Formal messages don’t happen every week but are passed using Flmsg. OHDEN meets Tuesdays at 7:45 PM eastern on 3.585 USB using Olivia 8-500 centered on 1000 Hz.

Find out more information:
NBEMS mission statement, considerations, and features: http://uspacket.org/network/index.php?topic=44.0

ARRL NBEMS: http://www.arrl.org/nbems

K8JTK Getting started with Fldigi – including Flmsg and Flwrap: http://www.k8jtk.org/2015/04/16/getting-started-with-fldigi-including-flmsg-and-flwrap/

K8JTK VHF/UHF NBEMS – An Introduction using Fldigi and Flwrap: http://www.k8jtk.org/2015/11/10/vhfuhf-nbems-an-introduction-using-fldigi-and-flmsg-presentations/

Ohio Digital Emergency Net: http://www.ohden.org/

Ohio Section Journal – The Technical Coordinator – July 2017 edition

One of the responsibilities of the Technical Coordinator in the Ohio Section is to submit something for the Section Journal. The Section Journal covers Amateur Radio related things happening in and around the ARRL Ohio Section. It is published by the Section Manager Scott – N8SY and articles are submitted by cabinet members.

Once my article is published in the Journal, I will also make it available on my site with a link to the published edition.

You can receive the Journal and other Ohio Section news by joining the mailing list Scott has setup. You do not need to be a member of the ARRL, Ohio Section, or even a ham to join the mailing list. Please sign up!

If you are an ARRL member and reside in the Ohio Section, update your mailing preferences to receive Ohio Section news in your inbox. Those residing outside the section will need to use the mailing list link above.
Updating your ARRL profile will deliver news from the section where you reside (if the leadership chooses to use this method).
Go to www.arrl.org and logon.
Click Edit your Profile.
You will be taken to the Edit Your Profile page. On the first tab Edit Info, verify your Email address is correct.
Click the Edit Email Subscriptions tab.
Check the News and information from your Division Director and Section Manager box.
Click Save.

Now without further ado…

Read the full edition at: http://arrl-ohio.org/news/OSJ-July-17.pdf

Jeff Kopcak – TC

DSCF5081 K8JTKHey gang,

Have you recently built something? Came up with a solution to a problem in the shack? Achieved a milestone? Now, ask your club newsletter editor if they are looking for content from club members. I’ll bet they say “yes!” Hams are interested in good articles written by club members sharing their experiences with projects and adventures. You’ll be surprised to find out how many other people are interested in the same thing or how it will motivate others to experiment with something similar. Believe me, it happens. One of the reasons you see me here in the OSJ is because of articles Ken – KG8DN asked me to write for the LEARA newsletter a few years ago. If you don’t write articles as part of a job or for fun, the last time many of us wrote anything was probably in school. Those writing technique brain cells were fried long ago. I will cover techniques, ideas, and some lessons learned to assist you in putting together a fantastic article for the club’s newsletter.

First and most important, meet with the newsletter editor or shoot them an email letting them know the topic you want to write about and get an idea of their requirements. Requirements such as: how much space will I have, will there be room for pictures and diagrams, when is the deadline to have everything turned in. Page requirements will help you focus the article emphasizing certain topics and provide detail versus insignificant points that don’t fit with the rest of the story. The editor may have some general questions to help jump-start the process. This works too as stories wrote themselves with a question or three. Note these questions and refer back to them if you have writer’s block. If the topic isn’t exactly ham related or different than the usual type of articles found in the newsletter (ie: more public service than technical), ask about that too or write it with a technical focus.

With the editors’ requirements in mind, make an outline (bullet point list) of general topics to cover. What do you see as the major milestones of the project? Maybe something like: design considerations, building, and operating. Once the main points are established, include a few detail points. For a build project, this might look something like:

  • Design
    • Power source (AC, DC, USB, car, battery)
    • Inputs (radio audio, computer audio)
    • Outputs (radio audio, computer audio, line monitor)
    • Connections (speakers, headphones, USB)
    • Indicators (LED: power, audio level, PTT)
  • Build
    • Placement of components (circuit board, level adjustments mounted on the side)
    • Connectors (USB, serial, audio)
    • Sizes (hidden switch, large lighted switch, large LEDs)
    • Housing (Altoids tin, wooden box, oil pan, baking tray, hobby store find)
    • Mounting (wall, portable, back of radio)
  • Operation
    • Testing (digital net, friend over the radio)
    • Tweaking (changed component values)
    • Adjustments (audio level knobs in front, manual pot inside)
    • Anticipated results (clean audio on PSK)
    • Actual results (splattered across the entire band – only kidding)

After the general outline is assembled, it’s time to start thinking about the details. People have different writing styles. Some plan the entire article top to bottom and write as such. Others start with the detail points and form a story around it. Some just write their stream-of-consciousness then add or delete details in revisions. Whatever your style, introductory paragraph should have generalizations about the topic giving the reader something they can relate to: “have you ever heard…,” “did you ever wonder about…,” “I first learned about…,” “while I was doing X, I heard about Y,” “when I first got my license I was thinking what about doing Z.” The first paragraph or two should illustrate the topic in “broad brush strokes.” No specific details about the topic, yet. Quaky antidotes are always good. The last sentence should setup the specific topics covered in the article. This is referred to as the thesis. The thesis can outline specific topics: “I’m going to talk about experiences designing, building, and operating my new widget.” Or general: “here’s how I got this project off-the-ground” with specific topics detailed in the article. Either way, the main bullet points created earlier should form the thesis and drive the main topics covered in the article.

After topics are established for the reader, start by first talking about the problem you were trying to solve. Talk about things like: “I wanted to add JT65 capability to my QRP rig,” “I’ve used available interfaces before and wanted mine to do A and B because C,” “I wanted to learn Linux so I used a Raspberry Pi to make a portable NBEMS station,” “I wanted to learn Python and now the club’s station can be operated remotely.” Fill in the details about how you went from a problem to a working solution using the detail bullet points outlined earlier as a guide. Was the solution similar to another design found online or did you create one from scratch? Why did this solution work for you? What value did it add for you? What lessons did you learn about your chosen path? What problems did you incur and how did you solve them? Describe to the reader the functions of different pieces or purposes of the different stages. Example: “this stage takes the audio from the radio and amplifies the level for the computer,” “this takes the computer audio and drops the level for the radio.” When in doubt, answer the 5Ws: who, what, when, where, why.

It’s incredibly easy to get wrapped up or focused on the details. Remember your reader probably doesn’t have the same level of experience and is only mildly interested in your project. Bombard them with minute details and their head will explode. Give them some table scraps, they’ll find something interesting and keep reading. Don’t rattle off specifications like: ‘I choose the ARM v5 blah blah processor because flux capacitor blahs blahs +1,000,000,000V than the equivalent direct-conversion Arduino ATmega2560 16 MHz blah blah PWM at 4097 bit encryption…’ No one cares. Concise descriptions in (mostly) plan English are always better: “I wanted an audio path between the radio and computer that keyed the transmitter from the software. It must be isolated to prevent buzzing and hum noises from potential ground loops.” Most hams know what those terms mean. If some technical detail is paramount to the story, relate it to something most non-technical hams would understand: “the Raspberry Pi hard drive is an SD card, which is the same type of storage used in nearly all cell phones and digital cameras.”

If space allows, note any other solutions researched and discuss reasons those alternative methods where abandoned. Take a position then argue with yourself: here’s my idea, here were other possible solutions and why I didn’t accept them or why they didn’t work. An absence of supporting facts shows a lack of critical thinking and understanding of the subject. The closer the audience is to a subject, more convincing and disproving other theories will be required. Use of snarky comments shows arrogance, so leave them out.

Finally, wrap it up. Include anecdotes, accomplishments, funny stores, or final comments about the project. Were you happy with the results? What do you use the device for? Did you find other or different uses for the project than you envisioned?

Pheew! Now I’m done right? Well, far from it. The article is written, now revise, revise, and revise. Re-read your work to make spelling, grammar, and context corrections all while making sure it flows well together – does anything I wrote make sense? The free LibreOffice Writer is great but Microsoft Word has a phenomenally better grammar checker. For me, it works best to print the entire article, read it, make revisions on paper as I go along, enter them into the computer, print it out again, make more revisions, put it down for a few days – repeating this process about 5 or 6 times. Printing takes me away from the computer allowing me to focus on the article. I picked up this habit in grad school when I got a C on a paper. I knew if I spent more time revising, my grade could have been better. Whether I’m not in the right mindset, got a lot going on, stressed, or not committed, my revision regiment eventually produces something I’m proud of. If you’re not good with revising, ask a buddy or spouse to help you out.

The newsletter editor is there to give you some direction. Don’t expect them to do all the work. They have enough to do. Unlike news or publishing organizations that have paid staff to scrutinize the article, the editor probably has little experience or standing with your topic. If they offer to proof read and make suggestions or comments, utilize it. Don’t expect them to validate every detail, statement, correct every spelling mistake or grammar error. Don’t take offense to their feedback either. They’re trying to help by providing constructive criticism while making the newsletter appealing to readers. Don’t send them a bunch of pictures without relating them to the work. It will be embarrassing when they put the wrong picture in the wrong section because ya didn’t make it clear!

For images, designs, or facts found elsewhere, give credit to the source of that information. You wouldn’t like it if someone stole your design and claimed it as theirs. In school, they made this big deal about using specific style guides for a bibliography. I haven’t used any of that stuff. I’ll make a note, usually with a website or URL, in line with the text or put a section at the end giving credit for their hard work.

Personally, I love to see pictures of the device in operation, installed, or the person working on it. Leave out anything more than basic diagrams and schematics. Details in those images will be lost when sized for the copy. Detailed images, documents, diagrams, and videos can be uploaded to a website, if available, or use a free online storage service like Google Drive or Dropbox. Both have provisions to create a shared directory that others can only view (that is important!). Link to that folder or specific file at the end of the article: “for more pictures, a more detailed write-up, or schematics, go to this URL.” Videos are good if they’re kept to about 2-4 minutes in length showing the person using their project and talking a little about it. These can be uploaded to YouTube for exposure or to the online storage folder. Longer detailed videos or build videos should be separate. If the viewer wants to learn more, they can check-out the longer versions.

While the examples provided here were geared toward a build project, this outline can be used for sharing knowledge on a software defined radio dongle you picked up, a new digital mode you learned, operating adventure, or new toy many have yet to see. If you’re still looking for more methodology ideas, grab any issue of QST and follow the format of a similar article to yours. With a little work, you can become a published author and help your club out in the process!

Thanks for reading and 73… de Jeff – K8JTK

Ohio Section Journal – The Technical Coordinator – June 2017 edition

One of the responsibilities of the Technical Coordinator in the Ohio Section is to submit something for the Section Journal. The Section Journal covers Amateur Radio related things happening in and around the ARRL Ohio Section. It is published by the Section Manager Scott – N8SY and articles are submitted by cabinet members.

Once my article is published in the Journal, I will also make it available on my site with a link to the published edition.

You can receive the Journal and other Ohio Section news by joining the mailing list Scott has setup. You do not need to be a member of the ARRL, Ohio Section, or even a ham to join the mailing list. Please sign up!

If you are an ARRL member and reside in the Ohio Section, update your mailing preferences to receive Ohio Section news in your inbox. Those residing outside the section will need to use the mailing list link above.
Updating your ARRL profile will deliver news from the section where you reside (if the leadership chooses to use this method).
Go to www.arrl.org and logon.
Click Edit your Profile.
You will be taken to the Edit Your Profile page. On the first tab Edit Info, verify your Email address is correct.
Click the Edit Email Subscriptions tab.
Check the News and information from your Division Director and Section Manager box.
Click Save.

Now without further ado…

Read the full edition at: http://n8sy2.blogspot.com/2017/06/june-edition-of-ohio-section-journal.html

Jeff Kopcak – TC

DSCF5081 K8JTKHey gang,

Another Dayton Hamvention is in the books. Yes, despite the arguments – ‘it’s not in Dayton anymore blah blah blah’ – the program guide still says “Dayton Hamvention.”

My dad, N8ETP and I have been attending Hamvention consecutively for the past 3 years. I’ve gone down a couple years by myself, stayed at numerous hotels in the area, bummed rides off friends, taken bus trips, and even stayed at the dorms on the University of Dayton’s campus. Returning back each year quickly brings back memories of routes in and out of the arena along with familiar eating and travel destinations. The layout inside rarely changed. You knew where the prize booth was located along with favorite dealers, vendors, clubs and organizations. The entire back parking lot was the flea market. There was the usual selection of arena eats – burgers, nachos, hot dogs, pizza, and ice cream – that often benefited a local school or community organization.

Now, everything is different.

The Hamvention committee should be commended for the monumental task of moving the event from the now closed Hara Arena to the Greene County Fair Grounds in Xenia, Ohio within 9 months. I can’t even imagine what it takes to setup an event that draws 25-30,000 people let alone move it to another location quickly.

Buildings at the new location are less than 20 years old. They were rebuilt after a tornado hit the fairgrounds in 2000. RV parking and an on-site bathhouse were available. There was ample parking on the grounds and at three remote locations with shuttle transportation. Quite different compared to the dilapidated arena where there always seemed to be a haze indoors due to the lack of air flow, falling ceiling tiles with mold and probably 30-year-old dust, and septic system with a propensity to explode.

Atmosphere of was more “fair” than “convention” because vendors and exhibitors were spread out over separated buildings (themed Maxim, Tesla, Marconi, and Hertz), displays were in outside tents, and an abundance of food trucks and carts similar to that of any county fair was seen. More eating area was needed compared to the amount we were used to at Hara. There were long lines and the limited seating, for maybe 50, filled quickly. I had an enjoyable standing lunch with members of the Wood County ARC.

If you were lucky enough to be there Friday, you were greeted by the “Welcome to Xenia” signs quickly followed by break lights and miles of cars waiting to get into the fairgrounds. Even the shuttles were stuck in traffic. The reason was discovered once we arrived. Cars were being parked at a rate of nearly one-at-a-time. Time was wasted waiting to see which isles were full and which ones had room for additional cars. This was quickly remedied Saturday as cars were being parked in multiple locations at once, effectively eliminating the traffic issue from Friday. Scratch that issue off the list.

In general, Hamvention is smaller. I knew this going in from vendors indicating they weren’t going to have the space they were used to. Vendors made the most of it and generally seemed to work. As a result, vendors couldn’t bring the usual amount of stock. Show specials for things like the very popular TYT MD-380, you could purchase one but couldn’t leave with one. In one case, it would be shipped and arrive the following Tuesday. Kinda a bummer as many hoped to leave with a new toy. Vendors in the outside display tent got washed out with storms that rolled through. Not good for computers, sensitive radio equipment, and video cameras I saw out there. I was not able to find Mendelsons – a long time staple of the Hara flea market. I heard others asking too if they had been spotted.

Lastly, mud. The flea market and parking lots were in grassy areas, or at least started out that way. Friday wasn’t bad as the ground was soft in a few areas of the flea market. Saturday morning, with the help of overnight storms, large farm tractors used for transporting patrons were contributing to the problem of turning the grassy parking lot into a mud pit. After everyone took shelter for even more storms Saturday morning, allll bets were off. The flea market isles were mud tracks. A good pair of rain boots were needed to help manage. It was funny watching rented scooters trying to manage a couple inches of mud. Not wanting to get our clothes dirty, we headed out about 3pm on Saturday and learned the parking lot suffered the same fate as the flea market. The committee, I think, anticipated this because they had rope and skid loaders for cars that needed assistance. We exited without assistance but still need to get our car washed twice to get MOST of the mud off.

All-in-all, I’ll call it a success. Out of the things that could go wrong, these issues were the harder ones to plan and tackle. The traffic issue was resolved the next day. This shows they are already learning from the problems that came up during the show. It was a suitable location for a venue change in 9 months. Anyone who is thinking of going next year, you should make your reservations now. The camaraderie, meet and greets, and running into fellow hams was as exciting as ever. If any of the planning committee is reading, I have an idea for a bigger location… just sayin’.

If you didn’t catch the June 7th episode of Ham Nation, Michael Kalter – W8CI was the featured guest for the Hamvention recap. They talked issues and plans for the future. If you think they’re only working on minor changes, you’d be wrong. More: https://twit.tv/shows/ham-nation/episodes/303

There wasn’t a ton of major announcements at Hamvention. Some of the more technical things I did pick up on:

  • ICOM had a prototype of their latest direct-sampling SDR transceiver, the IC-7610. It resembles the IC-7600 with the SDR features of the IC-7300. They’re looking at late summer availability once approved by the FCC.
  • Kenwood featured their TH-D74 APRS & D-STAR 144/220/430 HT. This radio has been out for some time but were touting D-STAR has seen a resurgence because of this radio. I don’t think people are going to start putting up D-STAR repeaters again because of one radio. Kenwood is looking for feedback from customers to see if there is interest creating an equivalent mobile radio to the D74.
  • 220 MHz DV access point (DVAP) for the D74 and 4 new “DV AIR” devices by Robin AA4RC. AIR series are embedded devices supporting the DV Dongle, DV3K, and DVAP eliminating the configuration and need of a Raspberry Pi to make those devices portable.
  • Yaesu had their new DR-2X repeater on display.
  • Flex Radio has four new SDR radios. Two models integrate the Maestro control panel (touch screen and controls) into the radio. If you ever thought ‘real radios have knobs,’ there you go.
  • Just before Dayton, Connect Systems shipped the first batch of CS800D DMR dual band mobile radios. There is a waiting list for the next around assuming no issues with the first. Check the Connect Systems store and look for the ‘CS800D waiting list’ option for instructions.

The 300th episode of Ham Nation was the week before Dayton. I attended the Ham Nation forum which was still standing room only in the new room. I got to be apart of the forum promoting the D-STAR After Show net. Show hosts and net controllers were invited to the ARRL booth afterward to get our picture taken with Tom Gallagher – NY2RF.

With the highlights and festivities around Dayton Hamvention, the special event commemorating 300 episodes of Ham Nation kicked off the following Wednesday with episode 301. For one week, show hosts, after show net controllers, many with 1 x 1 special event call signs where on the HF bands and digital modes. With nearly an estimated 10,000 contacts made, digital didn’t get the numbers we hoped. There were pileups for the nets but quickly dropped off for the remainder of the week. The idea for digital was to involve more hams that don’t have privileges or means for an HF setup. Those that participated were happy digital was involved.

If you participated in Ham Nation 300, send your QSL card with an SASE to the stations worked. A commemorative card will be returned. The logs are being compiled for the certificates which will be available in the future, catch the show for details. Lastly, the points challenge is going on until August so you still have time to get involved if you missed the special event stations.

Last month, I started out with an introductory series on terminology used in ham radio DMR. I finished a second writeup on programming a code plug from scratch. Programming is focused around the TYT MD-380 but should apply to other CPSes too. It covers a fictitious repeater example, hotspot configuration (even for the DV4Mini), and simplex operation. Check it out and get familiar with your DMR radio by programming it! http://www.k8jtk.org/2017/06/11/dmr-in-amateur-radio-programming-a-code-plug/

Not at Dayton but shortly after, I saw a hands-on review of the new Tytera (TYT) MD-2017 DMR dual band hand held on Ham Radio 2.0. You heard right, a DUAL BAND DMR HT! I was excited for this radio even though there are not many VHF DMR repeaters – unless you’re in New England it seems. The review indicated the channel selector knob was replaced with a Blackberry Curve-style roller trackball. My enthusiasm quickly deflated. WHY??!! I had a BB Curve. The trackball was a nice idea at the time but it was overly sensitive, got gummed up quickly – especially in a dirty environment, was hard to clean, and had to be replaced about once a year. The radio itself is similar to the MD-380 but differences include programming cable, software, code plugs, and a VFO. An MD-380 code plug won’t open in the MD-2017 CPS. I’m sure a hacked program will be available to load code plugs on different radios. Seemed like a good radio otherwise, though I won’t be getting one. Ham Radio 2.0 Episode 99: Debut of the TYT MD-2017 Dual Band DMR HT: http://www.livefromthehamshack.tv/2017/05/29/episode-99-debut-tyt-md-2017-dual-band-dmr-ht/

The next big ham holiday, Field Day, is right around the corner. Get out and join your club or find a club to join if you’re not a member of one. It’s a great time to bring friends and get them excited about ham radio. Hams that come out get bitten by the bug to expand their station or learn a new mode. Check the Field Day Locator for operations taking place near you: http://www.arrl.org/field-day-locator. Sending 10 messages over RF from your site gets you 100 points – including Winlink messages. I love to receive messages about your setup, stations operating, or social activities taking place. These can be sent via the National Traffic System (NTS) or Winlink – K8JTK at Winlink.org. Winlink post: https://winlink.org/content/field_day_send_11_winlink_messages_200_points

With July around the corner, the 13 Colonies special event is coming up (http://www.13colonies.net/) along with the RAC Canada Day contest (http://wp.rac.ca/rac-canada-day-contest-rules-2017/).

Note: Ham Nation pictures taken by Tom – N8ETP.

Thanks for reading and 73… de Jeff – K8JTK

DMR In Amateur Radio: Programming a Code Plug

Read the rest of the series in the DMR in Amateur Radio series category.

You picked up a new DMR radio! Congratulations! You maybe thinking, what have I gotten myself into? Good question. DMR is the first commercial mode adopted for ham radio use. Terminology and radio setup are familiar to those who program commercial gear. If you’re coming across this programming example and have not read the first part on terminology, please do so as this will build upon it. Passing around a code plug makes DMR seem plug-and-play and it’s a great way to get started. Doing so tends to leave most of us unable to change the configuration of our own radios. My goal is to demonstrate how to program a DMR ham radio code plug from scratch. This will lead to understanding how code plugs work and how to modify them. I will demonstrate programming a code plug for an example repeater, hotspot, and simplex operation.

In addition to this example, I recommend looking at available code plugs online to get an idea of different ways to improve yours. This is how I learned to program code plugs. There is no central database or repository. Code plugs are scattered around the Internet and shared online. This makes sense because local users would know where to get a code plug. Ask others in the area with similar DMR radios where to find code plugs. The ARRL Ohio site has ones for Ohio’s DMR repeaters: http://arrl-ohio.org/digital/digital.html. Where this works for local hams, a scavenger hunt is required to find working code plugs for an area they’re visiting.

Screen shots and settings referenced in this tutorial are from the TYT MD-380 CPS and radio. Similar settings can be found in other programmers and radios. Functions of not-so-obvious radio settings are described in the appropriate sections.

Software (TYT & Connect Systems)

Updating settings and memories in all DMR radios requires a computer, programming cable, and CPS. Check radio packaging because some include the cable and software, others consider it an additional accessory. Most stock CPSes can’t rearrange entries or import from other sources. If you entered a new contact and wanted to rearrange the order, you can’t. If you want to import thousands of users, you can’t. Third-party code plug editors provide this additional functionality. All are freeware.

Tytera (TYT) MD-380/390/2017 CPS and firmware: http://www.tyt888.com/?mod=download

Connect Systems documentation, CPS, and firmware: http://www.connectsystems.com/software/

MD380 Tools: https://github.com/travisgoodspeed/md380tools
Alternative firmware for the TYT MD-380. Use at your own risk.

TYT MD-380 / 390 Code Plug Editor: http://www.miklor.com/MD380/380-CPEditor.php
Editor for importing/exporting settings, importing from the DMR-MARC user database, and rearranging entries. The TYT CPS is still needed to write the code plug to the radio. This is my preferred MD-380 editor.

N0GSG’s DMR Contact Manager: http://n0gsg.no-ip.org/contact-manager/
Works for certain models of Connect Systems, Tytera, Retevis, and AnyTone radios. Editor can import/export settings and import contacts from the DMR-MARC user database, comma separated file (CSV), or existing code plug. Sorting is accomplished by clicking the header columns. Radio CPS is still needed to write the code plug to the radio.

The last three are free to use but please consider a donation to the developer if you find their work useful.

Radio ID, general settings, and FPP

After installing the CPS, in “Basic Information,” first check the “Frequency Range” is correct for the radio.

First thing to program is your “Radio ID.” You registered for one, right? It is found in the CPS under “General Settings.” Enter your assigned CCS7 ID. When passing around a code plug or loading someone else’s, update the CCS7 ID otherwise you will appear as someone else.

The “Radio Name” can be whatever name you want to give the radio.

I like to have a notification when the transmission is complete and the channel is free. This is known as the ‘CH Free Indication Tone.’ NOTE: this tone did not work with the DV4Mini for some reason.

Enable FPP so the programming can be modified from the radio’s keypad. Remember to read the radio or update changes made through FPP into the CPS. Changes will be overwritten when the code plug is downloaded again to the radio. In the CPS, FPP can be enabled in “Menu Item,” under “Utilities,” check “Program Radio.”

To enter FPP mode on the radio, go to the menu, select “Settings,” and “Program Radio.” The “Radio Program Password” in “General Settings” of the CPS is used when entering FPP on the radio. This is a commercial carryover to keep users from screwing with the radio. Enter the program password, if needed, and voila.

Hang-time, delays, and other adjustments can be made and experimented with at your leisure.

Programming example

In order to successfully program a code plug for a repeater, Color Code, talk group, and time slot configuration must be known. This information can be obtained from RepeaterBook, RFinder, owner/club website, asking another user or the repeater owner. Also ask if the repeater has access to reflectors, if desired. Brandmeister and DMR-MARC repeaters have reflector access.

A configuration example of a factitious repeater is outlined below. I’ve picked common U.S. talk groups for each time slot and will use the “Area 8” reflector as examples. When you become more comfortable, substitute the local repeater’s information.

Private calls to individuals are never a mandatory part of repeater configuration. They are possible and will be shown as an example. I include private call channels for frequent contacts as part of my hotspot code plug.

The “type” column in the table below is for informational/clarification purposes only and would not necessarily be provided by the owner (see the previous terminology write-up).

Labeling and organization of the code plug is user preference. RX Group lists and channels will need an abbreviation or prefix noting to which system it applies. When programming even 10 repeaters, some distinction must be made for clarity. Prefixes help programming because similar items are grouped together in the CPS. Rationale behind this will become clearer as you add repeaters to a code plug. Some might like to have the city spelled out (Cleveland, Dayton, Columbus, Cincinnati, Toledo) while having the talk groups abbreviated (WW, NA, Lcl 9, TAC-311, Statewide). Others like to have the city abbreviated (Cle, Day, Col, Cin, Tol) while the talk group is spelled out (World-Wide, North America, Local 9, TAC-311, Ohio). No two items may have the same exact name in any one area: Contacts, RX Groups, Channels, Zones, or Scan Lists. “SC” will be the prefix used for this example to indicate “Some City.”

Call: K8XXX City: Some City, OH Output: 444.300
Input: 449.300
Color Code: 1
Label Type ID Time Slot
World-Wide Talk group 91 1
North America Talk group 93 1
USA – Nationwide Talk group 3100 1
Local 9 (or Reflector) Talk group 9 2
TAC-310 Talk group 310 2
TAC-311 Talk group 311 2
TAC-312 Talk group 312 2
Midwest (regional) Talk group 3169 2
Ohio (statewide) Talk group 3139 2
USA – Area 8 Talk group 4648 2

Individual contact

Scott N8SY User 3139437 N/A


Digital contacts are required to be setup first. These drives the ability to build RX Lists and channels. Every talk group, reflector, or user gets a contact. Relevant information in the table above: Label, Type, and ID.

It’s best to follow the labeling/naming provided by the c-Bridge. Some radios don’t have a lot of display real estate and names must be shortened to something like “WW” for talk group 91, “NA” for 93.

There are four fields per “Digital Contact” record in the CPS:

  • Contact Name
  • Call Type
  • Call ID
  • Call Receive Tone

“Contact Name” is simply the name you give each contact and is the label seen on the radio while receiving a call from that ID. “Call Type” is group/private/all-call setting. “Group” is for talk groups and “Private” is used for radio-to-radio calls or commands. “Call ID” is the numeric talk group, reflector, radio ID, or command number. “Receive Tone” is a per-call setting where a tone is emitted from the radio prior to unmuting the audio. This can be used as notification prior to receiving a call from a contact of interest.

There cannot be two contacts with the same “Call ID” or the same “Contact Name.” When programming different repeaters, potentially on different networks, all talk groups for all c-Bridges are entered as contacts. If two networks label talk group 3333 differently, a generic display name will have to be chosen, such as “3333” or “Group 3333.” On the other hand, “Example talk group” is talk group ID 3333 on one network and ID 3344 on another, then two differently named contacts have to be created for the same talk group (ie: “ExTG 3333” with ID 3333, “ExTG 3344” with ID 3344).

If the repeater owner says they follow K4USD’s talk group layout for example, they have nearly 70 available talk groups on their c-Bridge. Though it seems like a lot of work at the time, I recommend creating contacts for all 70 available talk groups. Having all talk groups programmed will result in less effort changing the code plug later. Brandmeister on the other hand, good luck. You really have to decide which talk groups are of interest because all talk groups are available to all repeaters and hotspots. To keeps things simple, stick with the repeater owner’s suggested Brandmeister groups.

For this programming example, contacts are pre-sorted by ID number. In the CPS software, create Digital Contacts with the listed settings:

  • Contact #1
    • Contact name: Local 9
    • Call type: Group call
    • Call ID: 9
    • Receive tone: No
  • Contact #2
    • Contact name: World-Wide
    • Call type: Group call
    • Call ID: 91
    • Receive tone: No
  • Contact #3
    • Contact name: North America
    • Call type: Group call
    • Call ID: 93
    • Receive tone: No
  • Contact #4
    • Contact name: TAC-310
    • Call type: Group call
    • Call ID: 310
    • Receive tone: No
  • Contact #5
    • Contact name: TAC-311
    • Call type: Group call
    • Call ID: 311
    • Receive tone: No
  • Contact #6
    • Contact name: TAC-312
    • Call type: Group call
    • Call ID: 312
    • Receive tone: No
  • Contact #7
    • Contact name: USA Nationwide
    • Call type: Group call
    • Call ID: 3100
    • Receive tone: No
  • Contact #8
    • Contact name: Ohio
    • Call type: Group call
    • Call ID: 3139
    • Receive tone: No
  • Contact #9
    • Contact name: Midwest
    • Call type: Group call
    • Call ID: 3169
    • Receive tone: No
  • Contact #10
    • Contact name: Ref Disconnect
    • Call type: Private call
    • Call ID: 4000
    • Receive tone: No
  • Contact #11
    • Contact name: USA – Area 8
    • Call type: Private call
    • Call ID: 4648
    • Receive tone: No
  • Contact #12
    • Contact name: Ref Info
    • Call type: Private call
    • Call ID: 5000
    • Receive tone: No
  • Contact #13
    • Contact name: Scott N8SY
    • Call type: Private call
    • Call ID: 3139437
    • Receive tone: No

Notice contacts #10 and #12 are not listed in the example table. These are standard reflector commands. A private call to ID 4000 is required to disconnect the repeater, 5000 checks link status. Talk group 9 is also required for reflector use. See the Reflector section for usage.

(Digital) RX Group lists

Once Contacts are entered, RX Group lists can be created. Relevant information from the example table: Label and Time Slot. RX Group lists are limited to a maximum of 32 talk groups per list. The intent was to monitor all talk group activity on a time slot. Only contacts set to “Group Call” can be added.

There are generally two ways of creating RX Groups. The first uses a one-to-one relationship where each talk group has its own RX Group List. The second includes all available talk groups on a repeater’s time slot into a single list. The latter creates lists unique to a repeater that cannot be reused on another repeater, unless the configuration is exactly the same. If the repeater has less than 32 talk groups on a time slot, put them all in one RX Group list. If there are more than 32, then create one RX list per talk group.

To keep repeater specific group lists unique, name the list: repeater location followed by “TS1/2” for the time slot designation. Example: “Some City TS1,” “Some City TS2.”

RX Group lists and the RX list selected for a channel are the first places to look when there is a suspected radio programming issue or nothing is being heard.

A repeater specific example is provided later. For this programming example, the one-to-one relationship is demonstrated. RX Groups are created in the same order as the repeater listing. In the CPS software, create RX Group lists and include the listed contact(s):

  • Digital RX Group List #1
    • Group List Name: World-Wide
    • Available Contact, select and add: World-Wide
  • Digital RX Group List #2
    • Group List Name: North America
    • Available Contact, select and add: North America
  • Digital RX Group List #3
    • Group List Name: USA Nationwide
    • Available Contact, select and add: USA Nationwide
  • Digital RX Group List #4
    • Group List Name: Local 9
    • Available Contact, select and add: Local 9
  • Digital RX Group List #5
    • Group List Name: TAC-310
    • Available Contact, select and add: TAC-310
  • Digital RX Group List #6
    • Group List Name: TAC-311
    • Available Contact, select and add: TAC-311
  • Digital RX Group List #7
    • Group List Name: TAC-312
    • Available Contact, select and add: TAC-312
  • Digital RX Group List #8
    • Group List Name: Midwest
    • Available Contact, select and add: Midwest
  • Digital RX Group List #9
    • Group List Name: Ohio
    • Available Contact, select and add: Ohio

Notice contacts #10-13 cannot be included because they are set to private call.


Repeater specific, all talk groups per time slot example:

  • Digital RX Group List #1
    • Group List Name: Some City TS1
    • Available Contact, select and add (position 1): World-Wide
    • Available Contact, select and add (position 2): North America
    • Available Contact, select and add (position 3): USA Nationwide
  • Digital RX Group List #2
    • Group List Name: Some City TS2
    • Available Contact, select and add (position 1): Local 9
    • Available Contact, select and add (position 2): TAC-310
    • Available Contact, select and add (position 3): TAC-311
    • Available Contact, select and add (position 4): TAC-312
    • Available Contact, select and add (position 5): Midwest
    • Available Contact, select and add (position 6): Ohio


This is where it all comes together. To create channels, Contacts and RX Group lists need to have been established.

Analog channels are straight forward if you’ve programmed any other analog ham radio. They will not be covered here.

Channels for the same repeater are easier to copy and paste. This depends on the software but usually involves setting up a channel, copying that channel, creating a blank channel, and pasting over the blank channel.

Some settings definitions:

  • Admit Criteria: determines when the radio is allowed to transmit.
    • Always: allows the radio to transmit any time PTT is pressed. This is the most disruptive option and may interrupt another QSO in progress.
    • Channel Free: the radio will only transmit when there is no transmission in progress on the time slot.
    • Color Code (Free): the radio will only transmit when the time slot is free on the repeater matching the color code. This mode pings the repeater at the beginning of each transmission to find a matching color code. This pinging is also an indicator if you’re making the repeater or if it is in use.
    • “Color Code” is recommended for a repeater, “Channel Free” for hotspot & simplex use.
  • In Call Criteria: action taken while receiving a call and the PTT button is pressed. This can be thought of as the ‘interrupt a call’ setting.
    • Follow Admit Criteria: follow the setting defined in “Admit Criteria.”
    • Always: always transmit, even while receiving a call.
    • “Follow Admit Criteria” is recommended for a repeater, “Always” for hotspot & simplex use.
  • Auto Scan: when the channel is selected, the radio begins scanning channels defined in the selected “Scan List.” For this option to function: create channels, add the channels to a Scan List, then create another new channel with the newly created Scan List selected and “Auto Scan” checked.
  • Lone Worker: the user receives an alert from the radio after a specified amount of time and must acknowledge by pressing any button on the radio. If the user does not respond to the alert, it is assumed the user is injured or incapacitated. The radio switches to an emergency mode so the user can be located and assisted. I have not seen this used in ham radio.
  • Allow Talkaround: this allows the radio to operate simplex mode when a repeater is not available or out-of-range. TX and RX frequencies must be different for this option to function. Talkaround is enabled/disabled manually via the radio’s “Utilities” menu, select “Radio Settings,” select “Talkaround,” then select “Turn On/Off.”
  • Emergency System: settings for an emergency alarm. I have not seen this used in ham radio.
  • Privacy: DMR includes the ability to “scramble” transmissions. This is a form of encryption and not allowed in the US.

A clear definition of “RX/TX Ref Frequency” has not been found and understood the default setting is sufficient.

Provided by Rich – G3ZIY:

These two drop-down selections are provided to change the radio’s basic oscillator frequency in the receive or transmit side. Because the radio covers such a wide frequency range, on some specific receive or transmit frequencies there can be a birdie generated internally which interferes with reception or transmission. If this occurs, by simply trying a different setting from the current setting, it should be possible to get clear reception and a clean transmission.

Leave “TX/RX Ref Frequency” at the default unless you experience problems transmitting or receiving and tack the problem down to the radio itself.

These settings will be applied to every digital channel created for this example and is a good template for actual programming:

  • Channel Mode: Digital
  • Band Width: 12.5kHz
  • TOT[s]: 180s (3 min) max for repeater & hotspot, 600s (10 min) max for simplex channels.
  • Power: “High” for repeaters & simplex – unless really close, “Low” for hotspots.
  • Admit Criteria: “Color Code” for repeater, “Channel Free” for hotspot & simplex.
  • Allow Talkaround: yes
  • Emergency System: None
  • Privacy: None
  • In Call Criteria: “Follow Admit Criteria” for repeater, “Always” for hotspot & simplex.

For this programming example, channels are created in the same order as the repeater listing. In the CPS software, create channels with the listed settings including universal settings above. SC = Some City, Ohio:

  • Channel #1
    • Channel Name: SC World-Wide
    • RX Frequency: 444.300
    • TX Frequency: 449.300
    • Contact Name: World-Wide
    • Group List: World-Wide (or Some City TS1)
    • Color Code: 1
    • Repeater Slot: 1
  • Channel #2
    • Channel Name: SC North America
    • RX Frequency: 444.300
    • TX Frequency: 449.300
    • Contact Name: North America
    • Group List: North America (or Some City TS1)
    • Color Code: 1
    • Repeater Slot: 1
  • Channel #3
    • Channel Name: SC USA Nationw
    • RX Frequency: 444.300
    • TX Frequency: 449.300
    • Contact Name: USA Nationwide
    • Group List: USA Nationwide (or Some City TS1)
    • Color Code: 1
    • Repeater Slot: 1
  • Channel #4
    • Channel Name: SC Local 9
    • RX Frequency: 444.300
    • TX Frequency: 449.300
    • Contact Name: Local 9
    • Group List: Local 9 (or Some City TS2)
    • Color Code: 1
    • Repeater Slot: 2
  • Channel #5
    • Channel Name: SC TAC-310
    • RX Frequency: 444.300
    • TX Frequency: 449.300
    • Contact Name: TAC-310
    • Group List: TAC-310 (or Some City TS2)
    • Color Code: 1
    • Repeater Slot: 2
  • Channel #6
    • Channel Name: SC TAC-311
    • RX Frequency: 444.300
    • TX Frequency: 449.300
    • Contact Name: TAC-311
    • Group List: TAC-311 (or Some City TS2)
    • Color Code: 1
    • Repeater Slot: 2
  • Channel #7
    • Channel Name: SC TAC-312
    • RX Frequency: 444.300
    • TX Frequency: 449.300
    • Contact Name: TAC-312
    • Group List: TAC-312 (or Some City TS2)
    • Color Code: 1
    • Repeater Slot: 2
  • Channel #8
    • Channel Name: SC Midwest
    • RX Frequency: 444.300
    • TX Frequency: 449.300
    • Contact Name: Midwest
    • Group List: Midwest (or Some City TS2)
    • Color Code: 1
    • Repeater Slot: 2
  • Channel #9
    • Channel Name: SC Ohio
    • RX Frequency: 444.300
    • TX Frequency: 449.300
    • Contact Name: Ohio
    • Group List: Ohio (or Some City TS2)
    • Color Code: 1
    • Repeater Slot: 2
  • Channel #10
    • Channel Name: SC Ref Disconn
    • RX Frequency: 444.300
    • TX Frequency: 449.300
    • Contact Name: Ref Disconnect
    • Group List: None
    • Color Code: 1
    • Repeater Slot: 2
  • Channel #11
    • Channel Name: SC Ref USA – 8
    • RX Frequency: 444.300
    • TX Frequency: 449.300
    • Contact Name: USA – Area 8
    • Group List: None
    • Color Code: 1
    • Repeater Slot: 2
  • Channel #12
    • Channel Name: SC Ref Info
    • RX Frequency: 444.300
    • TX Frequency: 449.300
    • Contact Name: Ref Info
    • Group List: None
    • Color Code: 1
    • Repeater Slot: 2
  • Channel #13
    • Channel Name: SC Scott N8SY
    • RX Frequency: 444.300
    • TX Frequency: 449.300
    • Contact Name: Scott N8SY
    • Group List: None
    • Color Code: 1
    • Repeater Slot: 2 – though really depends which is available on the repeater.


To use a Channel on the radio, it needs to be added to a Zone. Zones can contain analog channels too.

Some repeater and c-Bridge owners only made 16 talk groups available on their systems. That’s easy. All 16 go into one zone. Repeaters with more than 16 talk groups must have channels grouped.

Order of channels added to a zone will correspond with the dial position: first added will be position 1, second added will be 2, and so on.

Most use the zone to indicate where the repeater is located. Call signs are not often used because the city provides more detail when selecting an appropriate zone, especially when traveling.

For this programming example, only one zone is utilized. In the CPS software, create a zone with the listed channels:

  • Zone Information #1
    • Zone Name: Some City, OH
    • Available Channel, select and add (position 1): SC World-Wide
    • Available Channel, select and add (position 2): SC North America
    • Available Channel, select and add (position 3): SC USA Nationw
    • Available Channel, select and add (position 4): SC Local 9
    • Available Channel, select and add (position 5): SC TAC-310
    • Available Channel, select and add (position 6): SC TAC-311
    • Available Channel, select and add (position 7): SC TAC-312
    • Available Channel, select and add (position 8): SC Midwest
    • Available Channel, select and add (position 9): SC Ohio
    • Available Channel, select and add (position 10): SC Ref Disconn
    • Available Channel, select and add (position 11): SC Ref USA – 8
    • Available Channel, select and add (position 12): SC Ref Status
    • Available Channel, select and add (position 13): SC Scott N8SY

Scan Lists

Scan Lists are not required for radio operation but are nice for scanner like functionality across repeater time slots and frequencies. Channels have to be established first before it can be added. Scan Lists can contain analog channels too.

Order of channels added to a Scan List will correspond with the scan order. Private Call channels are unnecessary in scan lists because they are infrequent, short, and unnecessarily take up available list entries.

Activating the selected Scan List on the active channel requires assigning the “Scan On/Off” functionality to a programmable button universally in the radio. This is done in “Button Definitions” of the CPS. Another way is to create a channel with the “Auto Scan” feature enabled (see Channels section).

For this programming example, only one Scan List is utilized. In the CPS software, create a Scan List with the listed channels:

  • Scan List #1
    • Scan List name: Some City, OH
    • Available Channel, select and add (position 1): SC World-Wide
    • Available Channel, select and add (position 2): SC North America
    • Available Channel, select and add (position 3): SC USA Nationw
    • Available Channel, select and add (position 4): SC Local 9
    • Available Channel, select and add (position 5): SC TAC-310
    • Available Channel, select and add (position 6): SC TAC-311
    • Available Channel, select and add (position 7): SC TAC-312
    • Available Channel, select and add (position 8): SC Midwest
    • Available Channel, select and add (position 9): SC Ohio

Once a Scan List is created, Channels to which a Scan List applies must be updated. All of the “SC” channels.


That’s it! You have successfully programmed a ham radio DMR code plug from scratch! Now, substitute the local repeater’s information and begin having fun!

Suggested talk groups

Here is a suggested list of talk groups to get started on a Brandmeister network U.S. repeater or hotspot. Each bullet can be a separate zone.

  • Wide area groups (World-Wide: 91, North America: 93, USA – Nationwide: 3100)
  • Regional (Midwest: 3169, Southern Plains: 3175, Northeast: 3172, Mountain: 3177, etc.)
  • Ohio & surrounding states (Ohio: 3139, Indiana: 3118, Michigan: 3126, Pennsylvania: 3142, West Virginia: 3154, Kentucky: 3121)
  • Local & tactical (TAC) (1, 2, Local 9, TAC-310, TAC-311, TAC-312, TAC 1: 8951, TAC 2: 8952, …, TAC 9: 8959)
  • Reflectors & commands (Disconnect: 4000, USA – Nationwide: 4639, USA – Area 0: 4640, USA Area 1: 4641, …, USA – Area 9: 4649, Ref Info: 5000)
  • Special use (Parrot: 9990, audio test: 9999)


Reflectors are different than talk groups. With a talk group, keying automatically establishes the connection and is dropped after 15 minutes. Reflectors must be manually linked and unlinked. Time slot 2 is always used for reflectors and associated commands.

At user discretion, programming can include reflectors of interest. It’s a good idea to program the control commands into a code plug regardless of the desire to use reflectors. A repeater maybe connected to a reflector and left abandoned. Having those commands programmed are good for knocking down an abandoned link.

To establish reflector connection, a private call is made to the reflector ID. Some radios can make on-the-fly private calls by entering the ID on the keypad. Others need a channel programmed with the reflector ID in the “Call ID” field with “Call Type” set to “Private Call.”

A “Group Call” channel programmed to time slot 2, talk group 9 is required to carry on the QSO. This is known as “Local 9” on many repeaters.

When the QSO is finished, another “Private Call” is made to ID 4000 to disconnect the reflector. Private Call to ID 5000 will check the status at any time.

For two stations to establish communication on the “USA – Area 8” reflector (4648), both stations initiate a “Private Call” to ID 4648 on time slot 2, for 2 seconds. Switch their radios to “Local 9” for the QSO. When done, both initiate a private call to 4000 to disconnect their nodes.


Like any good communication system, DMR doesn’t have to be operated using a repeater.

Standard DMR simplex configuration and frequencies in the U.S.:

  • Talk group (contact ID and RX Group): 99
  • Color Code (channel): 1
  • Time slot (channel): 1
  • Admit Criteria (channel): Always (though I like to use “Channel Free”).
  • In Call Criteria (if applicable, channel): TX or Always.
  • UHF
    • 441.000
    • 446.500
    • 446.075
    • 433.450
  • VHF
    • 145.790
    • 145.510


Simplex code plug programming template:

  • Contact
    • Contact name: Simplex
    • Call type: Group call
    • Call ID: 99
    • Receive tone: No
  • Digital RX Group List
    • Group List Name: Simplex
    • Available Contact, select and add: Simplex
  • Channel, common:
    • Channel Mode: Digital
    • Band Width: 12.5kHz
    • TOT[s]: 600s (10 min) max.
    • Power: High
    • Admit Criteria: Always
    • Allow Talkaround: yes
    • Emergency System: None
    • Privacy: None
    • In Call Criteria: Always
    • Contact Name: Simplex
    • Group List: Simplex
    • Color Code: 1
    • Repeater Slot: 1
  • Channel 1
    • Channel Name: Simplex 441.000
    • RX Frequency: 441.000
    • TX Frequency: 441.000
  • Channel 2
    • Channel Name: Simplex 446.500
    • RX Frequency: 446.500
    • TX Frequency: 446.500
  • Channel 3
    • Channel Name: Simplex 446.075
    • RX Frequency: 446.075
    • TX Frequency: 446.075
  • Channel 4
    • Channel Name: Simplex 433.450
    • RX Frequency: 433.450
    • TX Frequency: 433.450


Many hotspots follow very similar programming to that of a repeater. Others offer a ‘simple’ mode utilizing a single talk group in the radio to make programming easier. I prefer my hotspot to function like a repeater.

Hotspot devices like the SharkRF OpenSpot and DVMega act similar to a repeater in terms of the programming. Follow the programming tutorial above with differences being the TX frequency would match the RX frequency (simplex) and time slot is always 2 (though the OpenSpot can use either).

For the OpenSpot, every RX Group will need to include “Local 9” to hear the voice announcements from the OpenSpot. These are the ‘connected’ and ‘profile’ announcements. There are additional control commands that can be used with the OpenSpot, like changing profiles, which are outlined in the manual: https://www.sharkrf.com/products/openspot/manual/

The OpenSpot can alternatively operate in a simple mode where transmissions to and from the Internet are routed to and from talk group 9 for the radio. Example: hotspot is connected to talk group 3139, the radio receives and transmits using talk group 9; connected to talk group 3100, radio still uses 9. Using this method, talk group changes have to be made through the OpenSpot web interface including changing the ‘Reroute ID.’

The DV4Mini will ONLY operate using talk group 9. For this reason, programming talk group 3139 into the radio for the DV4Mini will NOT work. No other talk group configuration will work with the DV4Mini EXCEPT talk group 9!

Brandmeister Extended Routing (XTG) is needed for talk groups not listed in the DV4Mini DV4MF2 application (eg: TAC-310, TAC-311, or TAC-312).

A programming example for OpenSpot in ‘simple’ mode or the DV4Mini. 446.900 is the simplex frequency chosen for the hotspot:

  • Contact (does not need to be created if “Local 9” already exits.)
    • Contact name: OpenSpot/DV4Mini
    • Call type: Group call
    • Call ID: 9
    • Receive tone: No
  • Digital RX Group List (does not need to be created if “Local 9” already exits.)
    • Group List Name: OpenSpot/DV4Mini
    • Available Contact, select and add: OpenSpot/DV4Mini
  • Channel
    • Channel Mode: Digital
    • Band Width: 12.5kHz
    • TOT[s]: 180s (3 min) max.
    • Power: Low
    • Admit Criteria: Always (though I like to use “Channel Free”).
    • Allow Talkaround: yes
    • Emergency System: None
    • Privacy: None
    • In Call Criteria: Always
    • Channel Name: OpenSpot/DV4Mini
    • RX Frequency: 446.900
    • TX Frequency: 446.900
    • Contact Name: OpenSpot/DV4Mini (or Local 9)
    • Group List: OpenSpot/DV4Mini (or Local 9)
    • Color Code: 1
    • Repeater Slot: 2

You’re now setup to use OpenSpot in simple mode or DV4Mini!

Ohio Section Journal – The Technical Coordinator – May 2017 edition

One of the responsibilities of the Technical Coordinator in the Ohio Section is to submit something for the Section Journal. The Section Journal covers Amateur Radio related things happening in and around the ARRL Ohio Section. It is published by the Section Manager Scott – N8SY and articles are submitted by cabinet members.

Once my article is published in the Journal, I will also make it available on my site with a link to the published edition.

You can receive the Journal and other Ohio Section news by joining the mailing list Scott has setup. You do not need to be a member of the ARRL, Ohio Section, or even a ham to join the mailing list. Please sign up!

If you are an ARRL member and reside in the Ohio Section, update your mailing preferences to receive Ohio Section news in your inbox. Those residing outside the section will need to use the mailing list link above.
Updating your ARRL profile will deliver news from the section where you reside (if the leadership chooses to use this method).
Go to www.arrl.org and logon.
Click Edit your Profile.
You will be taken to the Edit Your Profile page. On the first tab Edit Info, verify your Email address is correct.
Click the Edit Email Subscriptions tab.
Check the News and information from your Division Director and Section Manager box.
Click Save.

Now without further ado…

Read the full edition at: http://n8sy2.blogspot.com/2017/05/the-ohio-section-journal-hamvention.html

Jeff Kopcak – TC

DSCF5081 K8JTKHey gang,

DMR: you’re hearing a ton about it from the Ohio Section and the number of repeaters has exploded with nearly 60 in the state. DMR saw growth due to inexpensive offerings of quality radios at last year’s show. I suspect this year will be no different with new offerings from vendors, possibility of dual band radios around the corner, and many more groups supporting DMR.

How many of you know the terminology and could program a DMR radio from scratch? Passing around a code plug makes the mode seem plug-and-play and it’s a great way to get started. Relying on existing code plugs leaves most of us unable to change the configuration of our own radios or even know how it works. What happens if you need to change programming, add a repeater, the code plug information is old, or wrong?

When I started last year, I found there was very little information available on DMR in ham radio. I learned DMR by doing a couple things. First, I looked at the code plug I downloaded for my TYT MD-380. I got a lot of knowledge playing around with that. There were a couple things I wasn’t quite sure about. When I got together with a buddy who was interested in DMR, we further played around with the software, tried different settings, and I filled in those gaps.

With the continued support from the Ohio Section, one of our Technical Specialists, Dave – KD8TWG has been giving training presentations on radio programming and he created a DMR Learning Series explaining terminology and etiquette: https://kd8twg.net/category/dmr/dmr-learning-series/.

I put together a paper with the goal of explaining DMR to the person just starting out and include some more technical descriptions. It started as an idea to write an article or two for the OSJ around Dayton time so anyone jumping in would have good information. After starting the project, it quickly became much bigger.

The first writing talks about the DMR standard and compares it to other made-for-ham-radio modes like D-STAR and Fusion. One topic that might be of interest is the section on ‘is it legal?’ I’ve heard this question come up frequently and even clubs in the section are questioning the legality. Radios, CPS, code plugs, registering for a DMR ID are all discussed. I talk about repeaters, c-Bridges, networks, and some of the issues one might encounter. Terminology covered includes time slots, talk groups, reflectors, contacts, RX Group Lists, channels, zones, scan lists, and hotspots: http://www.k8jtk.org/2017/05/10/dmr-in-amateur-radio-terminology/.

The second will deal with creating a sample code plug for a factitious repeater, tying all the terminology together. Afterwards, you will be able to create and update your own code plugs! Stay tuned to next month. DMR repeaters in Ohio: https://www.repeaterbook.com/repeaters/feature_search.php?state_id=39&type=DMR.

At the request of Cuyahoga County Skywarn, Technical Specialist Dave – KD8TWG has installed a Sage EAS ENDEC device on the 146.76 repeater in Cleveland. 146.76 is the primary Skywarn repeater for Cuyahoga County. The device is the same used by radio and television stations to broadcast Emergency Alert System messages. It monitors NOAA weather radio frequencies and broadcasts tornado watches/warnings, thunderstorm watches/warnings – for Cuyahoga County, and the weekly EAS test. It’s been performing flawlessly!

The data and attention tones are the same everyone is familiar with. These are the same one would hear tuning to a broadcast radio or TV station during an event. In order to not clobber an existing QSO, the device will delay playing the alert until the repeater is free. DTMF tones are available to Skywarn NCS’s to disable the alerts if it begins to interfere with the net. Some innovative working being done here. Thanks for the hard work Dave.

Anthony – K8ZT, our ASM for Educational Outreach, shared some links with me from his site. He has put together lists of great resources for doing projects, ideas for the class room, training classes, and build projects a group my want to coordinate:

After my write up of podcasts last May (http://www.k8jtk.org/2016/05/15/ohio-section-journal-the-technical-coordinator-may-2016-edition/), I try to catch ones that feature a ham in the Ohio section. QSO Today episode 144 featured John Ackermann – N8UR. John was a past president of TAPR (which I’m a member) and is a big proponent of open source hardware and software (openly sharing designs that make the community better). Eric and John talked about his usage of SDR radios and this collection of test equipment. He’s done alot of experimenting with APRS and shares some of his lessons learned. I especially liked his idea that hams can achieve much greater data transfer speeds in the 3 GHz portion of our spectrum. Maybe others in the section will develop technology to utilize that spectrum more than we are currently. The podcast is available on your favorite podcast app by searching for “QSO Today” or by going to: http://www.qsotoday.com/podcasts/n8ur.

Don’t forget #HamNation300 special event is starting the Wednesday following Dayton. There will be stations operating D-STAR, DMR, Echolink, possibly Fusion, P25 and anything else we can get our hands on – in addition to SSB. I will be doing D-STAR, JT65, and maybe PSK too for some HF digital contacts. Points challenge is available for those who enjoy the social aspect of a special event. Tune in to Ham Nation (twit.tv/hn) every Wednesday evening. Details can be found on our event page: https://www.hamnationdstar.net/2017/04/05/ham-nation-300-special-event/. I will also be participating in the Ham Nation forum at Hamvention on Saturday, 10:30a in Room 1.

The show featured the digital net controllers this past Wednesday (5/10). My ugly mug was featured along with my good friend Andrew- WA8LIV from the DMR net and Dave – N3NTV from the Echolink net. You can watch the segment if you dare: https://youtu.be/afWX5kQSBAg?t=1h11m27s or download it at: https://twit.tv/shows/ham-nation/episodes/299. There’s a reason (more than one?) I stayed behind the camera when I worked TV production. I kid, check it out and join in the fun of #HamNation300.

That’s about it for this month. I’m looking forward to meeting all of you at Dayton (er, Xenia) this year. I’ve heard there were a record number of ticket pre-orders which I hope means a successful year for Hamvention. One thing I can guarantee for this year: it will be different for all of us. I’m excited to see what’s in store at this new venue. Get your shopping lists ready…. and see you at Dayton! Thanks for reading and 73… de Jeff – K8JTK

DMR in Amateur Radio: Terminology

Read the rest of the series in the DMR in Amateur Radio series category.

Planning on picking up a new DMR radio at Dayton? DMR saw growth due to inexpensive offerings of quality radios at last year’s show. I suspect this year will be no different with new offerings from vendors and many more groups supporting DMR. How many of you know the terminology and could program a radio from scratch?

Passing around a code plug makes the mode seem plug-and-play and it’s a great way to get started. Relying on existing code plugs leaves most of us unable to change the configuration of our own radios. What happens if you need to change programming, add a repeater, the code plug information is old, or wrong?

Here I’ll explain DMR concepts and terminology as it relates to the Ham Radio service. Next, I’ll walk through programming an example repeater and hotspot for devices like the SharkRF OpenSpot, DVMega, and DV4Mini. This series is intended for the beginner to better understand the technology by providing practical reasons and examples. These won’t be tied to a specific radio or repeater though there will be differences between vendors, models, repeaters, networks, and configurations in practice. Consult the repeater owner with specific questions.

About DMR

Digital Mobile Radio is an open digital mode standardized by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). It was first published in 2005 and is used in commercial products around the world. Open means the specifications are available for anyone to use, modify, add, or remove features as one sees fit. DMR uses two-slot Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA) allowing two channels in 12.5 kHz of bandwidth using the AMBE+2 proprietary codec (or vocoder, voice encoder). TDMA is old cellphone technology in use before LTE and GSM. “Spectrum efficiency of 6.25 kHz” is often used which is ‘blah blah’ marketing speak for ‘it really uses 12.5 kHz, half the time.’

ETSI’s objective was to have a low cost, interoperable, digital system. In reality, manufactures added their own proprietary features that make their radios non-interoperable with other manufactures. Motorola’s system is called MotoTRBO which is a DMR capable radio with their own proprietary features. Motorola did not create nor invent DMR but they help bring it to the U.S.

DMR is the first time a commercial system was adopted for ham use. Most of the terms heard in relation to DMR are carryovers from the commercial world. In comparison, D-STAR and Fusion were specifically designed for ham radio use. D-STAR, Fusion, and DMR are all open standards. This means commercial gear is setup for commercial users while ham gear is setup for the way hams use radios. All three use the proprietary AMBE codec allowing 12.5 kHz wide transmissions. DMR achieves two simultaneous transmissions in the same bandwidth. D-STAR uses the AMBE codec while DMR and Fusion use AMBE+2.

D-STAR has an Internet and networking component accessible by users built into the standard. This includes an APRS-like position reporting system called D-PRS. Fusion can transmit pictures messages, and position information to other stations. DMR data features in ham radio are underutilized. Up to this point, text messaging was the most widely used data feature. The Brandmeister network is the first network to begin taking advantage of position reporting data.

Most associate the openness of a standard with how many vendors sell equipment, which is an inaccurate assumption. There have been devices since D-STAR became popular that could turn any analog radio into a digital radio, including repeaters. Now, how much does that equipment cost is the more likely driving popularity factor.

Is it legal?

I hear this issue come up from time-to-time in the Ohio section. I’m sure many more have the same question. DMR is legal (in the U.S.) under Part 97 as of a decision issued on June 9, 2014 by the FCC in docket FCC-14-74. This decision modified Part 97 rules to allow emission types that cover DMR: FXD, FXE, and F7E into Sections 97.3(c) and 97.307(f)(8). Any further questions, please consult an ARRL legal or technical resource.

Keep in mind however, the DMR ID transmitted by the radio IS NOT a legal FCC ID. It’s analogous to kerchunking a repeater without identifying. There must be an identification using voice or something in the data stream must contain the station’s call sign. This includes identifying when linking and unlinking systems. D-STAR and Fusion transmissions contain the call sign in the data stream. Repeaters ID with CW like analog repeaters. The DMR ID in the data stream does not contain a valid FCC call sign and therefore does not constitute valid identification under Part 97. The transmitting station’s name and call sign may appear on your radio display, it still does not make for valid identification. See “Contacts” for more on displayed names and call signs.

Radios, CPS, and Code plugs

Inexpensive DMR radios are easy to come by. There are over 40 manufactures producing DMR equipment. The TYT (Tytera) MD-380 is the most popular ham friendly option for $100 at R & L and Universal Radio – remember to support your local dealers. Connect Systems radios are pricier but come with actual support and a wider selection, including mobiles. The super-cheap Baofeng DMR radios are just like all other Baofengs, crap.

Repurposed radios or new radios that appear on the market will work with the ham radio infrastructure. The radio must cover the appropriate VHF/UHF band and be “DMR Tier II” compliant. DMR Tier I is unlicensed 446 MHz in Europe, similar to FRS. Tier II, aka conventional, is licensed services needing higher power and IP Site Connectivity (IPSC) using the Internet for site linking. Tier III builds on Tier II adding trunking capability and advanced data services.

It’s estimated that 95% of all DMR repeaters in the U.S. are UHF with few VHF. Popular radios are only single band – a commercial carry over because commercial licenses usually cover a single band. Dual band DMR radios should be available by Dayton (2017). In the state of Ohio as of this writing, RepeaterBook is showing 60 DMR repeaters: 3 VHF, one 900 MHz, and the remaining are UHF… so make sure you pick up a UHF model.

To update settings and memories in all DMR radios requires a computer, programming cable, and Computer (or Customer) Programming Software referred to as “CPS.” CPS is the later version of RSS (Radio Service Software) which was used by radio programming professionals and commercial radio resellers. Front Panel Programming (FPP) is a software enabled setting allowing programming via the radio’s front panel. This method allows modification of important programmed functions but not all, so a computer is still required.

The radio utilizes a code plug which is a small program containing radio settings, repeater configurations, Talk Groups, contacts, power outputs, Color Codes, PL tones, signaling methods, and more. A code plug is similar to programming a ham radio with RT Systems or CHIRP. Settings and memories are programmed into the software then downloaded to the radio. Code plug is a Motorola term when physical jumpers were plugged into old radios enabling certain options. Later microprocessor based radios moved the settings internally but the term still stuck referring to radio settings. Today, they resemble small relational databases where settings and data are interrelated and interdependent. Making a change in one area may impact other settings that rely on that data. Next in this series will be programming a sample code plug.

In general, code plugs are radio specific. A TYT MD-380 will work on a MD-390 because the internals are almost identical. However, Connect Systems is not going to work in a Motorola or Hyterra. The newer a radio or less popular a radio is will make it harder to find preprogrammed code plugs.

DMR radios, unless specifically labeled, are not compatible with other ham radio digital systems like D-STAR and Fusion. Advancements are being made to incorporate all digital modes into a single radio by third-party developers.


Every user on any DMR network requires a CCS7 ID commonly referred to as a “DMR ID” or “radio ID.” CCS stands for “Callsign Communication System” (or Call Connection Service) and is a subscriber identification containing 7 digits. Users registered in Ohio are assigned 3139xxx, where ‘xxx’ is a 3-digit consecutive ID. Ohio used up all 3139xxx IDs and has rolled over to 1139xxx. One might note that the Ohio Statewide Talk Group has the ID 3139! This radio ID has its place on D-STAR, DMR, and Fusion networks but the reasons are beyond introductory level. The CCS7 is a universal ID that will work on any DMR network.

If you don’t already have a DMR ID, follow the instructions on the DMR-MARC registration site. DO NOT REQUEST multiple IDs for a single callsign! Hotspot devices or different radios don’t need separate IDs. Obtaining an ID may take up to 3 days and the process can be started even before buying a radio. If you think you might already have an ID: on the registration page, click the “Database” link, click “User Database,” and search using your call sign (current or previous). To change the registered information for a call sign, use the “Contact Us” link.

Repeaters, c-Bridges, and Networks

In order to program a DMR repeater into a DMR radio, a couple pieces of information about the repeater are needed. To program an analog FM repeater into a ham radio, a user needs the repeater transmit frequency, offset/receive frequency, and PL/DCS tone configuration to access the repeater. Different information is required for a DMR repeater: Color Code and Talk Group configuration is needed. The functionality of a PL/DCS tone is replaced by a “Color Code” (CC) or “Colour” when in Europe. There are 16 possible Color Codes, 0-15. A DMR repeater cannot be Color Code-less. Like PL, the Color Code must match the repeater or the repeater cannot be accessed.

Configuration of the repeater depends on the c-Bridge or network it is connected to. C-Bridge is a communication device to route calls between different networks. There are many ham radio c-Bridges: DMR-MARC, DCI, NATS, CACTUS, K4USD, Crossroads – for example. Some c-Bridges explicitly define repeater configuration, including limiting available Talk Groups only to certain regions. For example, “Rocky Mountain regional” may not be available on Ohio repeaters. Other c-Bridges allow owners leeway in their configuration. User linking is done via Talk Groups or reflectors. Repeaters cannot be linked to directly by other repeaters or hotspots.

Brandmeister is a decentralized network of master servers. Master servers are different from a c-Bridge but an oversimplification is they both provide similar linking functionality. The Brandmeister name is synonymous with DMR but it cross-links with other networks and digital systems like D-STAR and APRS. Work is being done on linking Fusion and P25. All Talk Groups and reflectors on Brandmeister are available to all repeaters and hotspots connected to that network.

As with any linked repeater system, there are significant time delays in fully establishing connections. On an analog repeater system with multiple voted inputs, it will take two or three seconds for the system to fully come up. From the time the radio is keyed, the signal has to reach the inputs, the inputs reach the voter, voter decides which input is the strongest, bring up the transmitter(s), and all receiving stations pick up the repeater’s signal. Fast-keying is one of my pet-peeves where a transmitting station quickly keys their radio and starts talking. Receiving stations only hear the last letter or two of a callsign. Delays are even longer when networking and routing packets is involved over a wide area. This is true for any networked mode: D-STAR, DMR, Fusion, Echolink, AllStar, or IRLP. When first establishing connection on a repeater, first key up for 2 to 3 seconds before saying or doing anything to being up all links. Once links are established, they tend to react quicker so that delay can be dropped to 2 seconds on subsequent transmissions.

Another note when linking DMR systems, at the time a repeater or hotspot is connected, an existing transmission might be taking place on that Talk Group. Nothing would be heard by the station that linked. They think the Talk Group is free and end up disrupting an in progress QSO by calling another station. At the point the system is linked to a Talk Group with a transmission in progress, nothing will be heard until the first station unkeys. After linking, wait a minute while making sure the Talk Group is not already in use before calling.

At some point, you will be ‘bonked’ from a repeater. This is the tone a radio might emit after attempting to access a repeater. There are many reasons for being bonked: repeater didn’t respond because it is offline, wrong Color Code is programmed for the channel, out-of-range of the repeater, an incorrect Talk Group/time slot configuration is programmed, Talk Group doesn’t exist, someone could be making a private call, or there is some other error in the radio configuration. Most likely reason: another Talk Group is in use on the same time slot.

More information about repeaters and time slots is in the “Talk Group” and “Time Slot” sections.

Repeater owners: one big problem with DMR has been the lack of information on your repeater. It’s pointless going through the trouble of putting up a digital repeater and not telling people how to access it. Post the Talk Group layout, how to access them, and include any other procedures users should follow. Post this information on a website, use RepeaterBook or RFinder as both have provisions for listing Talk Groups. It can make all the difference in attracting new users.

Time slot (TS)

Time slots allow two conversations on the same repeater, on the same frequency, happening at the same time, and be completely separate from each other. This is what people refer to when they say ‘DMR is two repeaters in one.’ A time slot can be thought of as a ‘channel.’ Each repeater has two time slots or two channels. A user can only access one time slot at a time. Two Talk Groups cannot be accessed on the same time slot simultaneously.

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Each time slot occupies the signal for less than 30ms at a time. Within a 60ms window on a repeater: time slot 1 is transmitted for 27.5ms, then a gap of 2.5ms, time slot 2 is transmitted for 27.5ms, another 2.5ms gap, and then repeats with time slot 1. The human ear cannot detect that small of a gap in audio. A repeater transmits both time slots even though one channel is in use and the other idle. This cuts down on the on/off keying of the repeater. User radios, on the other hand, transmit for 27.5ms each 60ms window. This results in extended life of the handheld battery.

Talk Group (TG)

A way for groups of users to be separated on each time slot, without distracting or disrupting other users, is to use Talk Groups. A commercial example would be a baseball stadium. The ball park might have services like facilities management, guest services, security, first aid, concessions, traffic, and ushers all using the same radio system but the conversations are completely independent. Not all services would be using the frequency at the same time for the entire game. Each radio stays muted until their assigned Talk Group appears on the frequency, then it would unmute or activate for that transmission. Their radios would have the ability to switch over to another Talk Group. Security might need to alert first aid of a guest injury or guest services may need to notify facilities of an issue in one of the suites.

Ham radio Talk Groups can be created for any purpose and usually fall into the categories of wide-area (worldwide), regional (North America, Midwest), or a particular purpose (Ohio Statewide, XYZ club). There can be many Talk Groups available on a repeater time slot. Time slot 1 could have 5 while time slot 2 may have 25. Some c-Bridges organize wide-area Talk Groups on time slot 1 with regional, local, and special use on time slot 2.

Locals are unique and only heard on that repeater, not routed to the network in most cases. Special use includes Parrot and audio test. Parrot repeats received audio by the repeater. Audio test is a Talk Group linked to an online audio meter by the Northern California DMR Group (NorCal DMR). This has been deprecated because Brandmeister Hoseline has an audio meter for each Talk Group. Hoseline lets anyone listen to any Brandmeister Talk Group with a web browser: https://hose.brandmeister.network/. It is the “firehose” of Talk Group traffic.

The larger an area served by a Talk Group, the more repeaters and time slots are tied up simultaneously. Ohio Statewide keys about 60 repeaters at once. Calling and worldwide Talk Groups could be in the thousands and should be thought of as the 146.520 of DMR. Etiquette is to make contact then move to another Talk Group or a reflector. Tactical or TAC Talk Groups are used for longer QSOs and nets as they tie up the least number of repeaters and are selectively linked-up by repeater users.

Repeater configuration includes static Talk Groups – always connected, and dynamic Talk Groups – commonly referred to as PTT (push-to-talk). Dynamic are linked by a user for a period of about 15 minutes. After 15 minutes of no local activity, that Talk Group is dropped and the repeater returns to the static group on that time slot.

C-Bridges and networks tend to keep the same Talk Group numbering (ID) and allow cross-patching to others to keep things consistent. This means Ohio Statewide is the same group and ID on DMR-MARC, DCI, K4USD, Brandmeister, and others.

Brandmeister offers the flexibility for any two radios to key-up on a random Talk Group ID and essentially create their own Talk Group. This can be done using any Brandmeister connected repeater or hotspot. This Talk Group is not hidden or private because it will show up on Hoseline allowing anyone to listen in and any other stations can join in too. A list of known Brandmeister Talk Groups is provided in the links section.


As described in the repeaters section, some c-Bridges severely limit the Talk Groups a repeater can access. What happens when you’re traveling to Florida and want to talk to your buddies back in Ohio? Or worse, talk to a buddy in England? Talk Group options become limited to wide-area ones which tie-up a lot of repeaters for a lengthy QSO. Reflectors are a way to solve this problem.

Similar to D-STAR or IRLP reflectors, nodes are connected in a round-table style configuration. When one station transmits, their signal is transmitted by all other connected nodes. So far, these sound like Talk Groups. The difference is reflectors are available worldwide and repeater users have to specifically link and unlink a reflector. This means only repeaters and hotspots connected to that reflector are tied up during transmissions and not thousands of repeaters on world-wide Talk Groups.

Reflectors are a 4-digit ID that begins with a 4, 4xxx. Not every c-Bridge has granted reflector connectivity. DMR-MARC and Brandmeister have this ability. Some reflectors are cross-patched to Talk Groups on Brandmeister so either the reflector or Talk Group ID can be used. Reflectors are seldom used on Brandmeister because of the availability of all Talk Groups to all repeaters and hotspots on the network. However, reflectors still serve the intended purpose if a station isn’t in range of a Brandmeister repeater.


There are three call types in DMR: Group Call, Private Call, and All-Call. Each is a contact within the radio. A Group Call is a transmission from one radio to a group of radios. These instantly link-up dynamic Talk Groups when PTT is pressed. When you press PTT on Ohio Statewide (3139), all other radios configured for 3139 unmute. All-Call is a carryover from commercial and is programed into supervisor radios allowing the ability to make a call to all radios on the same time slot regardless of talk group. All-call is not used in ham radio.

Private Call is a call from one radio to another radio using the other radio ID (see Registering). In ham radio, that ID is associated with an individual. To return a private call, that users’ radio ID must be stored and selected in the radio. These calls are routed to a user’s last known location on the network, like D-STAR call routing. If someone keyed a DMR repeater in Dayton, then travels to Cleveland, the private call is still routed to the Dayton repeater. Private calls are generally discouraged and even disabled on some repeaters. They tie up a time slot and could clobber an existing QSO. Other users will have no idea why they cannot access the time slot. Private calls are acceptable between hotspots because they are lower profile with only a few users. The DV4Mini can receive private calls but didn’t seem to know how to handle returning a private call.

A common issue I hear on DMR all the time is ‘I don’t see your name and call sign on my display. I must be doing something wrong!’ This behavior depends on the contacts stored in the receiving radio. To see the transmitting station’s name or call sign on the radio display, that radio ID must be setup as a contact in the receiving radio. When the radio receives a radio ID in the contact list, the Contact Name is displayed in place of the radio ID. If the radio ID is not in the contact list, the radio displays what it knows which is the seven-digit radio ID that comes across as part of the data stream in the transmission.

The MD-380 for example, has room for 1,000 contacts which is a carryover from commercial. Most police departments and businesses don’t have more than 1,000 radios in their fleet. Ohio has 1,400+ registered users so the MD-380 cannot store all registered users. Modified firmware makes this possible or look for a radio with more memory for contacts.

(Digital) RX Group lists

An RX Group List is a list of Talk Groups that will unmute or activate the radio when received on the same time slot as the current channel. RX lists were created as a way to monitor activity on the repeater regardless of channel. Key thing to remember is these lists are time slot specific. A radio is set to Local9 with Ohio Statewide and Local9 (both on time slot 2) included in the same RX Group list. When a conversation starts up on Ohio Statewide, the radio would unmute even though Local9 is selected. One can turn their radio to Ohio Statewide and join in. These can cause confusion if a station was heard on Ohio Statewide but the reply transmission went out over Local9. Be careful and mindful of the selected channel before transmitting.

If the radio was set to Local9 and a conversation started on North America calling on time slot 1, nothing will happen. The radio would remain muted because the time slot is different – even if they are in the same RX Group list.

As the name implies, these lists only include contacts set to Group Call for their Call Type. Private calls are not included in these because a radio will always unmute when a private call for that radio ID comes over the time slot. RX Groups keep users from interrupting conversations on repeater Talk Groups they are not monitoring. While intended to cut down on interruptions, some will quickly realize they are hearing a lot more Talk Group traffic then they care about.

When a radio does not unmute as a signal is received, the frequency-in-use LED would illuminate or some other ‘in use’ indicator would be seen. This indicates a Talk Group is not in the RX Group list for the channel, another time slot is in use, or a private call is occurring. To scan across time slots and channels, see Scan List.


This is where it all comes together. Channels are like memory settings of a typical ham radio. These tell the radio which modulation type to use (analog or digital), frequency, time-out-timer setting, power level settings, and scan lists. It ties together DMR specific settings like Color Code, time slot, digital contacts, and RX Groups. Analog channels are programmed here too.


A Zone is a way of organizing channels. Most radios allow a maximum of 16 channels per zone because that’s how many positions are available on the channel selector knob on top. Channels not included in a zone cannot be selected on the radio. There can be one or many zones per repeater or hotspot. There is no limit to how channels are arranged within a zone.

Zones are selected through the radio’s menu. When a new zone is selected, channels assigned to that zone become positions on the channel selection knob.

An un-programmed position will result in a continuous error-sounding tone from the radio until a valid position is selected. This was probably intended as a notification for commercial users to indicate they are on a channel where no transmissions will be heard, so a continuous tone sounds.

Scan Lists

RX Group lists receive Talk Groups on the same time slot. Scan lists scan different channels. These lists are closely related to the scan functionality of a scanner. Lists can include the different time slots, different frequencies, and include analog channels. Scan lists have a limit of about 32 channels per list. These lists are not required for radio operation.

Roam Lists

Roam lists are similar to when a cell phone switches towers automatically. They are useful when mobile. Though not implemented by many manufactures, the same functionality can be accomplished by creating a Scan List. The scan list would contain a single Talk Group across many repeaters. Roam lists only work well for static Talk Groups. Otherwise, the Talk Group has to be activated on each repeater, essentially defeating the purpose.


Hotspots are low powered (20mW or so) transceiver devices that connect to a network over the Internet. The hotspot becomes the gateway to the network. An Internet connection is required. Some hotspots will require a computer (DV4Mini) or Raspberry Pi (DVMega, DV4Mini) while others are standalone (OpenSpot). Lastly, a transceiver capable of that mode is needed. SharkRF OpenSpot, DVMega, and DV4Mini are all capable of operating D-STAR, DMR, and Fusion. A D-STAR DVAP, for example, would not work with DMR or Fusion.

After trying out the DV4Mini in a number of configurations with different users, the device needs a lot more work. As of this writing, I would personally stay away from it. DVMega’s are good for tinkering or finding a working software image, which can be frustrating. The SharkRF OpenSpot is my recommendation for a hotspot because of stability, ease-of-use, features, and updates.

Communication Examples

Situation: Find any station to make an extended QSO.
Solutions: Call out on any Talk Group: this is K8XXX listening on ‘name of the Talk Group.’ Ie: “This is K8JTK listening on Ohio Statewide.” When on a “Calling” Talk Group and contact is made, keep the QSO relatively short, move to another Talk Group (TAC Talk Groups for example) or Reflector for the duration of the QSO.

Situation: Make a sked with a buddy on the same local repeater.
Solutions: Use Local9 when all stations are on the same local repeater. Use statewide or other Talk Group when you want to bring in other stations not on the local repeater or hotspot.

Situation: Make a sked with another station on a different repeater.
Solutions: Both stations must have both repeaters linked to the same Talk Group or Reflector. Then call the other station as one normally does. For different regions or countries: a common talk group between both repeater networks must be found. Typically, TAC or any Talk Group on Brandmeister.

Situation: Make a sked with a station on a repeater and other on a hotspot.
Solutions: Hotspot access is only available on DMR-MARC and Brandmeister networks. A common talk group between the repeater network and hotspot network needs to be used. Typically, statewide, TAC, or any Talk Group on Brandmeister. Both stations must link to the same Talk Group or Reflector. Then call the other station as one normally does.


If you’re still here, you made it through the terminology portion of this series, which is the hardest part. The next will bring it all together as I walk through creating a sample code plug for a DMR repeater and hotspot. DMR has come a long way since I jumped into it at Dayton in 2016. Likely in the next year, explanations here may change slightly and improvements in radio technology may make code plugs unnecessary.


About CCS7 ID system: https://register.ham-digital.org/html/ccs7-ENG.html
List of BrandMeister Talk Groups: http://www.dmr-utah.net/talkgroups.php, https://brandmeister.network/?page=talkgroups
Ham Radio 2.0 podcast (DMR 101 (Greater Houston Hamfest Forum)): http://www.livefromthehamshack.tv/2017/04/18/episode-90-dmr-101-greater-houston-hamfest-forum/

References used for this writeup
Ham Radio 2.0 podcast (DMR 101 (Greater Houston Hamfest Forum)): http://www.livefromthehamshack.tv/2017/04/18/episode-90-dmr-101-greater-houston-hamfest-forum/
BrandMeister Getting Started Guide: http://n8noe.us/DMR/files/BrandMeisterGettingStartedGuide.pdf
Connect Systems CS600/CS700 Programming Guidelines: http://www.connectsystems.com/products/manuals/CS600_CS700_Programming_Guidelines.pdf
Amateur Radio Guide to Digital Mobile Radio (DMR) by John S. Burningham, W2XAB: http://www.trbo.org/docs/Amateur_Radio_Guide_to_DMR.pdf