Category Archives: Amateur Radio

Ham Radio topics.

NBEMS – An Introduction Using Fldigi and Flmsg presentations

I was asked to give a presentation on using Fldigi and Flmsg in NBEMS — Narrow Band Emergency Messaging System (or Software).

Framework

The framework I chose to use for the presentation slides is called reveal.js. It is an HTML framework meaning it will run in any HTML 5 capable browser. Looks a little better than a PowerPoint presentation.

Navigation

Useful navigation keys in the presentation. In addition to navigating with the keys below, you can swipe (tables/smartphones) or use the navigation arrows on screen in the lower right.

Toggle full screen: press [F11].

Advance to the next slide: press [n] or [SPACEBAR].

Go back to the previous slide: press [p] or press and hold the [SHIFT] key while pressing the [SPACEBAR].

Display presentation overview: [ESC] then use the arrow keys or mouse to select a slide. [ESC] again will exit overview mode.

Links

Clickable links are colored in blue text.

Presentations

Three variations are available: presentation version is viewable in a browser. Printable version for printing or saving in a different format. Finally a PDF version.

They may take some time to load because I left original images untouched and some were a couple MB in file size.

Slides

Introduction to NBEMS

The presentation is about 60 minutes in length.

Presentation version
Printable version
PDF version

This presentation was given at the following meetings:
Lorain County ARES on 10/21/2018.

VHF/UHF NBEMS

This is an older version without the HF information.

The presentation is about 60 minutes in length.

Presentation version
Printable version
PDF version

This presentation was given at the following meetings:
Medina County ARES on 11/10/2015.
Mansfield Hamfest on 2/21/2016.

NBEMS – Doing It The Ham Radio Way

Archived from: uspacket [dot] org/network/index.php?topic=44.0

Archive reason: domain expired, server shutdown, or otherwise unaccessible.

Notes: Some reformatting applied.

I do not take any credit for the content or make any claim of accuracy.


NBEMS – Doing It The Ham Radio Way
by Charles Brabham, N5PVL
Updated 06-27-2012

NBEMS ( Narrow-Band Emergency Message System ) is perhaps the best solution available for moving eMail and other text-based information over amateur radio frequencies, to handle emergency communications. Here I will outline the reasons that I have come to this conclusion after reviewing the available amateur radio messaging systems.

Mission Parameters:

Our mission is simple. – To provide an alternate means of moving messages into and out of a disaster area where regular internet access has become compromised, is limited or nonexistent. For this purpose, it is seldom necessary to transport messages or eMail via amateur radio any farther than 100 miles or so, or to move any great volume of data. It is important however that the messages get through with 100% accuracy, and in a timely manner. In most cases, this service will be needed for anywhere from a few hours up to several days.

Considerations for Amateur Radio Operators:

For amateur radio operators, the best method is to utilize the radios, software and equipment that we use every day for ham radio, and so are already familiar and comfortable with. The system should be inexpensive and easy to use so that all amateurs may participate, and are not faced with a steep learning curve in order to be ready to act in an emergency. Extensive training and drilling should not be required in order for hams to function well when needed. There also should be some flexibility to handle different needs of unexpected situations that may be encountered. The system should work independently of existing infrastructure, and require no costly and complicated infrastructure of its own.

NBEMS

I have reviewed the amateur radio eMail and messaging systems in current use, and have found that NBEMS best covers the mission parameters and the considerations for amateur radio operators outlined above.

NBEMS was developed as a collaborative effort between Dave Freese W1HKJ and Skip Teller KH6TY, the developer of the popular DIGIPAN PSK31 software. It consists of a suite of programs that send text, images and eMail files error-free. The two main programs, FLDIGI and FLARQ are designed to run under Linux, Free-BSD, Mac OS, Windows XP, Win2000, Vista and Windows7.

The NBEMS system is designed to operate on all amateur bands, but is optimized for short to medium range communications such as SSB VHF, or HF with an NVIS antenna can provide. It can also be utilized on VHF FM, and even operated through a FM voice repeater at need.

Digital modes currently recommended for HF NBEMS operations are: OLIVIA 8/500, OLIVIA 16/500, MT63 1k, PSK-125R and PSK-250R. For VHF use on simplex or through a repeater, MT63 2k is recommended and can be used to good effect without a soundcard interface.

The free FLDIGI multimode soundcard software offers many digital modes, but the modes listed above are most often associated with NBEMS. Amateurs who use FLDIGI for everyday QSOs in PSK31, Hell, Olivia, MT63 etc. will be familiar with the software when occasion calls for the NBEMS system to be called up.

An optional part of NBEMS is the FLARQ software, which provides the interface to your eMail program, and which also provides the ARQ feature for NBEMS which gives you 100% accurate transmissions of the messages and images you transmit. In addition to email, you can send comma delimited spread sheets/data bases, text, and many ICS form-based messages.

The FLWRAP add-on program allows you to transmit a bulletin to an unlimited number of stations simultaneously. Each recipient can confirm individually whether they have received the data with 100% accuracy, as FLWRAP generates a checksum for each message.

The FLMSG program makes authoring, sending and receiving text, ICS-205, ICS-206, ICS-213, ICS-214, and ICS-216 forms in addition to ARRL Radiograms a simple point and click proposition.

NBEMS Features:

  • Inexpensive ( free soundcard software )
  • Simple to use, reducing training requirements
  • Effective, perfectly tailored to the EMS mission
  • Narrowband modes conserve spectrum
  • A live operator on each end, eliminating interference potential
  • Flexible enough for use with most equipment under most conditions
  • The software is great for everyday use, again reducing training requirements
  • Specialized add-on software for net control, rig control, callbook data, logging etc. are available

To learn more about NBEMS and to download the software:

Basic information and software download:

http://www.w1hkj.com/

NBEMS info and a downloadable PowerPoint presentation:

http://www.wpanbems.org/

ARRL articles about NBEMS:

http://www.wpaares.org/ecom.html

http://www.arrl.org/nbems

Informative Weblog article about NBEMS:

http://wedothatradio.wordpress.com/2008/04/14/nbems/

Ohio Section Journal – The Technical Coordinator – October 2018 edition

One of the responsibilities of the Technical Coordinator in the Ohio Section is to submit something for the Section Journal. The Section Journal covers Amateur Radio related things happening in and around the ARRL Ohio Section. It is published by the Section Manager Scott – N8SY and articles are submitted by cabinet members.

Once my article is published in the Journal, I will also make it available on my site with a link to the published edition.

You can receive the Journal and other Ohio Section news by joining the mailing list Scott has setup. You do not need to be a member of the ARRL, Ohio Section, or even a ham to join the mailing list. Please sign up!

If you are an ARRL member and reside in the Ohio Section, update your mailing preferences to receive Ohio Section news in your inbox. Those residing outside the section will need to use the mailing list link above.
Updating your ARRL profile will deliver news from the section where you reside (if the leadership chooses to use this method).
Go to www.arrl.org and logon.
Click Edit your Profile.
You will be taken to the Edit Your Profile page. On the first tab Edit Info, verify your Email address is correct.
Click the Edit Email Subscriptions tab.
Check the News and information from your Division Director and Section Manager box.
Click Save.

Now without further ado…


Read the full edition at: http://arrl-ohio.org/news/2018/OSJ-Oct-18.pdf

THE TECHNICAL COORDINATOR
Jeff Kopcak – TC
k8jtk@arrl.net

DSCF5081 K8JTKHey gang,

Digital mode access points, often called hotspots, have been in the news lately. Those are the 10mW personal devices used by digital operators to cover a relatively small area like a house, car, or hotel room. Instead of tying up a gateway repeater, which largely connects local users to the Internet, many have opted for these low-powered devices to provide similar functionality. Advantages over a repeater are the hotspot owner has complete control over which reflector, repeater, or talkgroup their hotspot is connected to. They are not beholden to the preferences of the repeater owner and have the flexibility to use their hotspot however they’d like. Many use them mobile in the car or take them on a trip allowing them to enjoy their favorite digital modes where there may not be repeater coverage.

Hotspot devices in general are about the size of a deck or two of cards and require an Internet connection, computer to run the software, application or web browser for configuration, and a radio capable of operating each mode. An Internet connection can be your home WiFi or cellphone hotspot (as in WiFi-hotspot). The original OpenSpot was the only device that required a wired Ethernet connection. A PC computer may serve as the Internet connection for USB access points. The computer could be a Raspberry Pi in many cases or might be completely self-contained. A web browser or application is needed to make configuration changes and adjustments such as call sign, transmit frequency, mode, or network. These hotspots are the RF gateway to the internet which means a radio capable of transmitting and receiving that mode is also required. Few hotspots today are single mode like the D-STAR DVAP. Nearly all on the market are capable of operating multi-mode and connecting to associated networks. To operate DMR the user would need a capable DMR radio, a capable Fusion radio for the Fusion networks, and so-on.

Hotspots can utilize the many available modes & networks:

  • DMR: BrandMeister, DMRplus, XLX
  • D-STAR: DCS, DPlus, XRF, XLX
  • Fusion: FCS, YSFReflector
  • NXDN: NXDNReflector
  • P25: P25Reflector

A keen eye might ask about Wires-X, P25net, or DMR-MARC. Those networks cater to a specific manufacturer of equipment and are often closed to other vendors. You might be able to reach resources on those networks because someone has cross-linked a closed network with an open network, usually at the point where digital signals turn into analog audio. This is how a user can be on Wires-X America Link and talk with a DMR user.

Hotspots and satellites

Not the Dave Matthews Band song Satellite either. A major issue for other hams has been caused by hotspot users. Every hotspot user and repeater owner reading this needs to verify your operating frequencies and take corrective action, if required. Under Part 97, hotspot devices are considered an auxiliary station. Auxiliary stations cannot operate within the satellite sub bands. Many hotspots are operating there illegally. Satellite sub bands for 2 & 440 are:

  • 2 m: 145.800 – 146.000
  • 70 cm: 435.000 – 438.000

If your hotspot is operating within those frequencies or near the edges, within the weak-signal sub bands, or any other sub band likely to cause issues, you need to take corrective action now!

In general, advice would be to ‘check with the local frequency coordinator’ but experience with the coordinating group indicates they won’t be of any help. What should you do? Note: this advice only applies to the U.S. band plan. Every band plan I’ve seen has the satellite sub bands defined. I do like the ARRL’s Band Plan because it spells out many details not included in graphical representations. The band plan has allowances in the following frequency ranges for simplex, auxiliary stations and control links:

  • 146.400 – 146.580. Usable (at 12.5 KHz spacing): 146.4125 – 146.5675
  • 433.000 – 435.000. Usable (at 12.5 KHz spacing): 433.0125 – 434.9875
  • 445.000 – 447.000. Usable (at 12.5 KHz spacing): 445.0125 – 446.9875

“Usable” indicates the lower and upper frequency limits that can be used with a digital hotspot. Don’t forget to stay away from the national calling frequencies of 146.520 and 446.000. Some of these ranges are shared with repeater links so remember: it is your responsibility to ensure correct operation of your equipment and find a frequency not already in use before using it! There is NO excuse for not adjusting frequency to eliminate interference with other operators and equipment! Listen to the desired frequency by setting up a radio or scanner with the volume turned up. If you hear any kind of obvious traffic, data bursts, or digital screeching, pick another frequency then rinse and repeat. Your cooperation is greatly appreciated!

OpenSPOT2

Right after Dayton I started hearing rumors that the OpenSPOT was discontinued. Not the news you want to hear if you just purchased one at Dayton. The website eventually confirmed the rumors and that another device was to be announced “soon,” which turned into months. Finally, the SharkRF OpenSPOT2 was announced. This replacement addresses many issues of the now legacy device including the need for a wired Ethernet connection, limited portability, and lack of newer digital modes.

Feature-wise it is nearly the same but includes a much-needed internal WiFi antenna and support for NXDN and P25 (two up-and-coming digital modes in ham radio). It includes POCSAG which I’m not familiar but told is a paging standard. Those under 35 have no idea what a pager is. The device operates off a USB-C cable (included) and looks to be about the size of a computer mouse. It will still have cross-mode support for DMR and Fusion radios and networks. As with the previous, you will not be able to use your D-STAR, NXDN, or P25 radio in cross-mode. Release date is expected before the end of 2018. Stay tuned to their website and social media portals for exact date.

ZUMspot review

At Dayton I added to my hotspot collection. On my shopping list was a ZUMspot or something I could use with the Pi-Star software. I picked up a ZUMspot kit and case from HRO. The kit lists for $130, $110 without the Pi board. The case adds $15. The kit came with the amazingly small Raspberry Pi Zero W (W for Wireless) and the ZUMspot modem board from KI6ZUM. You’ll need to provide a Micro-USB cable which powers both devices. I’ve seen demos and received feedback saying Pi-Star was a great application to use – and is stable. Many had issues with the DVMEGA (in particular) getting a good distribution that worked reliably with that device. Pi-Star is software written by Andy – MW0MWZ. It is distributed as a Raspberry Pi image for use with Digital Voice modems.

All configurable options are available through the web interface. It’s convenient and you don’t have to mess around with multiple interfaces or carrying around a screen for the device. Services like SSH are available but generally not needed.

Before I tried to use the image, I knew I had an issue. Since this was my first Pi device without a wired connection, I couldn’t edit the WiFi settings by wiring it to my network. Instead I mounted the SD on a Linux system and edited the /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf to include my WiFi information. Booted the ZUMspot and it connected to my wireless auto-magically. The Pi-Star site has a utility to help create the wpa_supplicant.conf file.

I’ve primarily used the ZUMspot on D-STAR and DMR but it supports all modes and networks mentioned earlier in the article. It doesn’t do as well as the OpenSPOT when D-STAR stations are marginal into their gateway. There’s more “R2D2” on the ZUMspot in that respect but it’s a minor issue. Pi-Star can enable multiple digital modes at one time. This is a great selling point and works great if conversations happen at different times on different networks. It is a “first wins” scenario. If a D-STAR transmission ends and one on the DMR network starts, nothing will be heard on the D-STAR radio until the DMR transmission ends. In other words, parts of an otherwise interesting conversation maybe missed. The case is a bit of a jigsaw puzzle but it’s fairly easy to figure out from the picture that was provided. The ZUMspot is an excellent little device and I’m happy with it.

Technical Specialists report

Dave – KD8TWG has been very busy recently. He was again in charge of the communications and networking for the Great Geauga County Fair where they run APRS tracking of their golf carts, setup a phone system and IP cameras to cover the fair. At the Cleveland Hamfest he gave his presentation on Digital Modes. He compared and contrasted modes available to ham radio operators, including quality and radio options. Updated for this year was information on digital scanners and receiving the MARCS statewide digital system. Coming up on October 30, he and a few buddies will be putting on a “Test and tune” night for LEARA. It’s a great opportunity to check operation of radio equipment and make sure it is not transmitting spurs and harmonics (*cough* *cough* Baofengs *cough* *cough*). Contact Dave if you’re in the Cleveland area, or myself for the rest of the section, to have a similar program at a club meeting or hamfest.

If you were involved with the State Emergency Test, Black Swan exercise the weekend of October 6 & 7, you likely received bulletins from The Ohio Digital Emergency Network (OHDEN). Eldon – W5UHQ and crew gave up a good portion of their weekend to help with this event. They did a fine job of handling bulletins from the EOC and those stations that came through on the wrong communication channels. Join them for the OHDEN net on 3584.500 USB using Olivia 8-500 set to 1500 Hz on the waterfall each Tuesday at 7:45 PM eastern.

WB8APD, SK

Cleveland Hamfest – 1999, hac.org

I received word that Trustee Emeritus and past long-time Treasurer for LEARA, Dave Foran – WB8APD became a Silent Key on October 10, 2018. I knew Dave for about 10 years as a member of the LEARA board and mentor but knew the impact he made on the Ham Radio community long before I was a ham. In the time I knew him, Dave was always a behind the scenes guy – rarely getting on the radio. He was instrumental in getting repeater sites and maintaining equipment for LEARA including having an input for one of the repeaters at his house. Stories have been told that his basement was the print shop for the club’s newsletter when the club had 400+ members no-less. Dave was incredibly smart with technology and the Internet before most of us knew what it was. He worked for the phone company and the joke was “Dave had half of Ma Bell in his basement.” Internet linking was something he was into early on with his own IRLP node. He owned a server that, for a long time, served resources for the Cleveland area – not only ham radio clubs but community organizations too.

HamNet BBS before closing
Maybe you even dialed into the old HamNet BBS system located in Dave’s basement (yet another reference those under 35 won’t understand). Dave was my mentor with technologies LEARA was using as I was going to be helping or taking them over. He is the reason I’m into digital modes. Cleveland’s first D-STAR repeater was in-part Dave’s doing. Of course I had problems at first and he was my go-to for questions. The little space here covers only a fraction of his involvement and lives he impacted through his countless contributions. Goodbye and 73, Dave.

Thanks for reading and 73… de Jeff – K8JTK

Ohio Section Journal – The Technical Coordinator – September 2018 edition

One of the responsibilities of the Technical Coordinator in the Ohio Section is to submit something for the Section Journal. The Section Journal covers Amateur Radio related things happening in and around the ARRL Ohio Section. It is published by the Section Manager Scott – N8SY and articles are submitted by cabinet members.

Once my article is published in the Journal, I will also make it available on my site with a link to the published edition.

You can receive the Journal and other Ohio Section news by joining the mailing list Scott has setup. You do not need to be a member of the ARRL, Ohio Section, or even a ham to join the mailing list. Please sign up!

If you are an ARRL member and reside in the Ohio Section, update your mailing preferences to receive Ohio Section news in your inbox. Those residing outside the section will need to use the mailing list link above.
Updating your ARRL profile will deliver news from the section where you reside (if the leadership chooses to use this method).
Go to www.arrl.org and logon.
Click Edit your Profile.
You will be taken to the Edit Your Profile page. On the first tab Edit Info, verify your Email address is correct.
Click the Edit Email Subscriptions tab.
Check the News and information from your Division Director and Section Manager box.
Click Save.

Now without further ado…


Read the full edition at: http://arrl-ohio.org/news/2018/OSJ-Sep-18.pdf

THE TECHNICAL COORDINATOR
Jeff Kopcak – TC
k8jtk@arrl.net

DSCF5081 K8JTKHey gang,

Most hams and shortwave listeners know what the letters WWV mean. They are the call letters for the station that broadcasts the time, all the time. If you’ve never listened because you don’t have an HF radio or shortwave receiver, WWV is a shortwave radio station near Fort Collins, Colorado run by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and

WWV transmitter building (nist.gov)

Technology (NIST). WWV is the oldest continuously-operating radio station in the United States. It transmits time signals and bulletins in voice and digital formats on 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 MHz AM 24/7/365.

The time and transmitted frequency of WWV is controlled by atomic clocks which are the most accurate standards due to the use of atoms as a time keeping element. Not only is the time broadcast by WWV the most accurate but the frequency of the transmitters is also the most accurate. WWVH is the Hawaiian sister station to WWV. WWVB is co-located with WWV but broadcasts a constant time code for radio-controlled clocks on 60 kHz. This is the frequency clocks that automatically set themselves listen to. Both WWV and WWVH announce Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) each minute and broadcast other recorded announcements including GPS health reports, oceanic weather warnings, and solar activity bulletins.

Cesium atomic clocks (nist.gov)

Whether you use these stations to calibrate equipment and instrumentation, calibrate ham radio digital software and hardware (Slow Scan TV or Fldigi), listen to bulletins, or use it as a beacon to check propagation, all of that is likely to end. NIST has proposed shutting down, by way of defunding, the WWV stations in their 2019 budget proposal. This means the 2011 NIST estimation of 50 million radio-controlled clocks and wristwatches equipped to receive WWVB will become obsolete. Not to mention it is an instrumental part in the telecommunications field and in scientific research. At first, WWVB was not listed in initial stories which made sense. Continuing to operate it would not obsolete radio-controlled clocks. But it too started to appear in later news stores.

In the ARRL report, the reason given for defunding these broadcast stations would be to “consolidate and focus” on other programs due to reductions in NIST funding. Taking the WWV stations off the air would save $6.3 million. The NIST FY (fiscal year) 2019 budget request for efforts related to Fundamental Measurement, Quantum Science and Measurement Dissemination is $127 million, which, the agency said, is a net decrease of $49 million from FY 2018. The administration’s overall NIST budget request is more than $629 million.

While I was distraught as I think most hams were, it gets more ridiculous when I started to break this down. Most people don’t understand huge numbers like millions, billions, and trillions of dollars because we’ll never see those numbers in our lifetimes and they’re just unrealistic. Let’s convert these figures into numbers most of us do understand. For comparison, I’m adding the published 2017 U.S. federal budget numbers: actual total revenue was $3.316 trillion and actual expenditures were $3.982 trillion. Breakdown is as follows:

15 Mhz WWV transmitter (nist.gov)
  • 2017 U.S. budget total revenue: $3,316,000
  • 2017 U.S. budget total expenditures: $3,982,000
  • NIST 2019 proposed budget: greater than $629
  • NIST 2019 proposed fundamental measurement budget: $127, which was reduced by $49
  • Shutting down the WWV stations saves: $6.30

A whopping $6.30! $6.3 million is almost 1% of the total proposed 2019 NIST budget or 0.00016% (rounded) of 2017 total expenditures. Yeah, it’s a HUGE burden!

I got pretty upset and there was noted concern over the shutdown proposal, especially amongst hams as would be expected since we utilize the service probably more than others. I figured everyone wouldn’t want their wall clocks to stop setting the time automatically. However, reality set in as the petition started at whitehouse.gov didn’t gain much traction. As of this writing, with less than 3 days before it closed, it gained a little less than 19% of the needed signatures for the White House to respond. Note: OSJ publication date will be after the petition closes.

What happens next? I haven’t heard if the dial-in phone numbers for WWV will be shut down or remain accessible: (303) 499-7111 for WWV (Colorado), and (808) 335-4363 for WWVH (Hawaii). Phone systems are converting to data services (VoIP) and there will be slight delays due to network switching, latency, and loss. If the phone numbers remain available, it will be better than nothing.

Canada has a similar time standard called CHU on 3.330 MHz & 14.670 MHz at 3 kW and 7.850 MHz at 10 kW. The 3 MHz station was strong into NE Ohio on one Thursday night as I’m writing this article. I’m also making the big assumption CHU will remain on the air. CHU broadcasts are AM with the lower side-band suppressed. Unfortunately, Canada doesn’t have the equivalent of WWVB and they relied on the U.S. for their radio-controlled clocks. Go U.S.! In other parts of the world, radio-controlled clocks rely on MSF in England and JJY in Japan.

Radio-controlled clocks will switch to some sort of other technology, likely GPS, listen for a cellular signal, or piggyback on WiFi. Radio-controlled clocks I’ve used set themselves in the middle of the night at about 3AM. Figuring most electronic noise emitting devices (like computers) would be off and longwave reception is better at night. GPS will reduce clock setup by one step. You won’t have to tell the clock in which time zone it is located. Ooohhh, yeah – that was so much work! I’m skeptical about using GPS. Any time I bring my car GPS into the house, it “lost satellite reception.” Being internal to a steel building (like an office), I do not see how this works at all without bringing the clock to the window to resync. More skepticism comes in the form of a question: what happens when the U.S. developed GPS system is unavailable? It could be unavailable because of solar flares, software bug, or an act of a nation-state. If you haven’t seen Dr. Tamitha Skov – WX6SWW’s solar reports, GPS is significantly affected by solar flares just like our HF bands, but in different ways. There are commercially available car navigation devices and smartphones that are capable of receiving both U.S. GPS and Russian GLONASS. Consider other parts of the world are developing their own global navigation systems and not relying on one single system, Europe: Galileo & China: BDS.

Computers and other Internet connected devices are not affected by the WWV shutdown. They utilize the Network Time Protocol (NTP) from publicly available time servers for syncing time.

I hope the best for WWV, WWVH, and WWVB. Maybe a private entity will buy out and continue to operate the stations. Nothing is looking too good without outrage from the public or more support than the few that signed the online petition. I’m getting tired of forced obsolescence.

Thanks for reading and 73… de Jeff – K8JTK

Ohio Section Journal – The Technical Coordinator – August 2018 edition

One of the responsibilities of the Technical Coordinator in the Ohio Section is to submit something for the Section Journal. The Section Journal covers Amateur Radio related things happening in and around the ARRL Ohio Section. It is published by the Section Manager Scott – N8SY and articles are submitted by cabinet members.

Once my article is published in the Journal, I will also make it available on my site with a link to the published edition.

You can receive the Journal and other Ohio Section news by joining the mailing list Scott has setup. You do not need to be a member of the ARRL, Ohio Section, or even a ham to join the mailing list. Please sign up!

If you are an ARRL member and reside in the Ohio Section, update your mailing preferences to receive Ohio Section news in your inbox. Those residing outside the section will need to use the mailing list link above.
Updating your ARRL profile will deliver news from the section where you reside (if the leadership chooses to use this method).
Go to www.arrl.org and logon.
Click Edit your Profile.
You will be taken to the Edit Your Profile page. On the first tab Edit Info, verify your Email address is correct.
Click the Edit Email Subscriptions tab.
Check the News and information from your Division Director and Section Manager box.
Click Save.

Now without further ado…


Read the full edition at: http://arrl-ohio.org/news/2018/OSJ-Aug-18.pdf

THE TECHNICAL COORDINATOR
Jeff Kopcak – TC
k8jtk@arrl.net

DSCF5081 K8JTKHey gang,

One ham in our section was having WiFi issues on his back deck. Inside was no problem. Outside the house, the WiFi signal was zero. The service provider was contacted and a technician was sent. On site, the technician tested the line and indoor modem/gateway unit, which is also his WiFi access point. All tested fine.

What does this have to do with ham radio? Nothing. Until the technician said the cause of his WiFi problem was his 160-10m dipole in the back yard. It was very suspicious to the tech and is the cause of his WiFi issues ‘according to their training.’ It got better. Because the tech didn’t have anything like this “suspicious” antenna and had WiFi in his own backyard, this must be the problem of course! This is where I was contacted to consult on the issue.

More likely they are trained that WiFi interference is caused by other sources of RF. This is true. They’re probably trained to spot other nearby transmitting services like police, fire, cell towers, or any building with antennas. Other transmitting equipment will raise the noise floor and may cause interference. The ham didn’t seem to be in the vicinity of other services and this issue was occurring even while he was not transmitting. The suspicious antenna argument was, of course, unfounded.

If you are in the same situation, here are some tips to help determine and solve WiFi problems. Two causes of coverage issues are signal strength or interference. A signal strength problem is most often the culprit where the access point reaches the device but the device doesn’t have the signal strength to communicate back to the access point. Causes could be distance to the access point or some building material is blocking the signal like metal siding or rebar.

ASUS RT-AC5300

Most obvious solution to resolve signal strength issues is move the access point closer to where you want coverage. If the living room and an office needs the best coverage, locate it in close proximity to those locations. This poses problems if the access point has to be located near a certain phone or cable drop in the house (like the basement) because it also doubles as the modem/gateway from the provider. Carrier issued devices with access points are only “OK” for coverage. Mostly because there are no external antennas. The reason access points have multiple external antennas is for diversity reception and something called “beamforming.” Some can detect where the device is located relative to the access point by doing its own version of direction finding. Using multiple antennas, it aims more signal at that device. As ridiculous as the AC5300 access point looks, this is an extreme example of a router capable of beamforming.

There are two bands for consumer WiFi in the United States: 2.4GHz and 5GHz. The device and access point must have both radios to utilize both bands. Typically cell phones and tablets made in the last 5 years are dual-band WiFi. Other portable devices like laptops probably have both but not always. The first Raspberry Pi WiFi module I purchased is 2.4 only. While 5GHz offers more channels and is typically ‘quieter,’ meaning not as many devices and access points, it does not equal coverage of 2.4GHz. 2.4 will have better comparable range.

Interference is another cause of WiFi issues. This could be from another WiFi access point or many access points in an overly saturated environment like an apartment. Since WiFi is low power, anything can easily jam it such as Bluetooth devices and microwaves. In the US, 2.4GHz access points are supposed to be on channel 1, 6, or 11. But nothing is stopping anyone from using adjacent channels. Using adjacent channels causes interference.

WiFi Analyzer (img: Play Store)

Using channel 4 will interfere with both 1 & 6 because of the bandwidth overlap. Interference is typically seen as a strong WiFi signal followed by a significant drop in signal. Things that can create broadband noise like a noisy power supply/transformer or noisy florescent ballast could be interfering near the access point or area you want to have signal.

Ideal thing to do is a “site survey” with a tool like NetSpot. It will create a signal strength heat map of your access point coverage around the house. There is a free version but it is limited. Another program that identifies the WiFi landscape (access points, devices nearby, channels used) is inSSIDer (free version is near the bottom of the page) available for PC and Mac. A similar program to inSSIDer is WiFi Analyzer for Android. These programs will give relative signal strengths but only at that moment. You could plot the signal strength readings to generate your own heat map.

To relocate a WiFi access point without moving the provided modem/gateway, first disable the WiFi in the carrier provided device. Then run an Ethernet cable to a point as close to the location where coverage is desired. Find any old router with WiFi. Configure the WiFi settings in that router, disable the internal DHCP service, then plug the older router into the Ethernet cable. Though any old WiFi router will work, there have been WiFi vulnerabilities discovered as recently as last month where bad-guys can gain access. Use devices with updated firmware.

Another option is try a WiFi range extender/booster or a look at a better access point. Extenders range from $20 to a couple hundred. They connect to your existing WiFi like any other device and re-broadcast the WiFi signal without any additional wiring. I’m a fan of ones that accept third-party firmware like Tomato or DD-WRT.

For the ham who contacted me, he decided to go with a range extender available from his carrier and placed it near the back deck. This is the best option as it would be fully supported and could get help setting it up if needed. Note there is a WiFi technical limitation with extenders that can cut transfer speeds. However, for web browsing and HD streaming, you won’t even notice any reduction.

Thanks for reading and 73… de Jeff – K8JTK

Ohio Section Journal – The Technical Coordinator – July 2018 edition

One of the responsibilities of the Technical Coordinator in the Ohio Section is to submit something for the Section Journal. The Section Journal covers Amateur Radio related things happening in and around the ARRL Ohio Section. It is published by the Section Manager Scott – N8SY and articles are submitted by cabinet members.

Once my article is published in the Journal, I will also make it available on my site with a link to the published edition.

You can receive the Journal and other Ohio Section news by joining the mailing list Scott has setup. You do not need to be a member of the ARRL, Ohio Section, or even a ham to join the mailing list. Please sign up!

If you are an ARRL member and reside in the Ohio Section, update your mailing preferences to receive Ohio Section news in your inbox. Those residing outside the section will need to use the mailing list link above.
Updating your ARRL profile will deliver news from the section where you reside (if the leadership chooses to use this method).
Go to www.arrl.org and logon.
Click Edit your Profile.
You will be taken to the Edit Your Profile page. On the first tab Edit Info, verify your Email address is correct.
Click the Edit Email Subscriptions tab.
Check the News and information from your Division Director and Section Manager box.
Click Save.

Now without further ado…


Read the full edition at: http://arrl-ohio.org/news/2018/OSJ-Jul-18.pdf

THE TECHNICAL COORDINATOR
Jeff Kopcak – TC
k8jtk@arrl.net

DSCF5081 K8JTKHey gang,

Around the time of Dayton, the FBI asked everyone to reboot their routers. Why would they do that? Over the last two years more than 500,000 consumer and small business routers in 54 countries have become infected with a piece of malware called “VPNFilter.” This sophisticated malware is thought to be the work of a government and somewhat targeted with many of the infected routers located in Ukraine.

Src: Cisco’s Talos Intelligence Group Blog

Security researchers are still trying to determine what exactly VPNFilter was built to do. So far, it is known to eavesdrop on Internet traffic grabbing logon credentials and looking for specific types of traffic such as SCADA, a networking protocol controlling power plants, chemical plants, and industrial systems. Actively, it can “brick” the infected device. Bricking is a term to mean ‘render the device completely unusable’ and being as useful as a brick.

In addition to these threats, this malware can survive a reboot. Wait, didn’t the FBI ask all of us to reboot our routers? Won’t that clear the infection? No. In order for this malware to figure out what it needs to do, it reaches out to a command-and-control server. A command-and-control server issues commands to all infected devices, thus being “controlled.” C&C, as they are often abbreviated, allows the bad guys in control a lot of flexibility. It can allow infected devices to remain dormant for months or years. Then, the owner can issue commands to ‘wake-up’ the infected devices (called a botnet) and perform intended tasks. Tasks can range from attack a site, such as DynDNS which I wrote about in November of 2016, to steal logon credentials for users connected to the infected router. Back to the question, the FBI seized control of the C&C server. When an infected router is rebooted, it will try to reach out to the C&C server again but instead will be contacting a server owned by the FBI. This only gives the FBI a sense of how bad this infection is. Rebooting will not neutralize the infection.

Affected devices include various routers from Asus, D-Link, Huawei, Linksys, MikroTik, Netgear, TP-Link, Ubiquiti, Upvel, and ZTE, as well as QNAP network-attached storage (NAS) devices. There is no easy way to know if your router is infected. If yours is on that list, one can assume theirs is infected. As if that wasn’t bad enough, many manufactures don’t have firmware updates to fix the problem. The ones that have fixed the problem did so years ago. Since no one patches their routers, that’s why there’s half a million infected.
First thing to do is gather information about the make, model, and current firmware of your router. Then check for announcements from the manufacturer about affected firmware versions or preventative steps. The only known way to clear this infection is to disconnect it from the Internet, factory-reset the router, upgrade the firmware (if one is available), and reconfigure it for your network – or simply throw it away.

If those last couple words strike fear into your heart, there are a couple options:

  • See if your ISP has a device they will send or install for you. It can be reasonably assumed that devices provided or leased by the ISP will be updated by the ISP.
  • Find someone in your club that knows at least the basics of networking to help reconfigure things
  • Many newly purchased devices come with some sort of support to get you up and running

If you’re a little more advanced and want to learn more about networking:

  • EdgeRouter-X
    Use 3rd party firmware. Currently they are not showing signs of being vulnerable to VPNFilter or other infections. 3rd party firmware projects are often maintained by enthusiasts. They are updated LONG past when the manufacturer stops supporting their own products and updates often happen quickly. Some of those projects include: OpenWRT/LEDE, DD-WRT, or Fresh Tomato.
  • A Linux box could be setup with Linux packages to mimic router functionality or use a distribution such as pfSense or OPNsense.
  • Another great device to use is the Ubiquity EdgeRouter-X for $49.
  • Check the “Comparison of Firewalls” for other ideas.

That $5 hamfest deal isn’t sounding so great anymore. It’s the law of economics for these companies too. $10, $30, or $100 for a device isn’t going to sustain programmer’s time to find, fix, troubleshoot, test, and release firmware updates for a 7-year-old device. It’s a struggle. I think it will come down to spending more on better devices which will be upgraded longer or spend $50-$100 every 3-5 years to replace an OK one.

The Department of Commerce released a report on the threat of botnets and steps manufactures could take to reduce the number of automated attacks. It hits on a number of good points but lacks many details. “Awareness and education are needed.” Whose responsibility is it to educate? I can write articles in the OSJ but I’m not going to be able to visit everyone’s house and determine if your devices are infected. “Products should be secured during all stages of the lifecycle.” Automated updates could take care of this problem but doesn’t address what-ifs. What if the update fails or worse yet, bricks your “Smart” TV as an example? Who is going to fix or replace them? Will they be fixed if it’s out of warranty? Not to mention operating system “updates” are bundled with more privacy violations and ways to monetize users.

There’s a lot of work to be done. I wish I had the answers. Regardless, we all need to be good stewards of the Internet making sure ALL attached devices are updated and current.

More technical details on VPNFilter and citation for this article: https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2018/06/router_vulnerab.html
https://blog.talosintelligence.com/2018/05/VPNFilter.html

Finally this month, thank you to all the clubs and groups that sent messages to this station via WinLink or NTS over Field Day weekend. It was the most I’ve ever received, about 12 – 15 messages altogether.

Thanks for reading and 73… de Jeff – K8JTK

Ohio Section Journal – The Technical Coordinator – June 2018 edition

One of the responsibilities of the Technical Coordinator in the Ohio Section is to submit something for the Section Journal. The Section Journal covers Amateur Radio related things happening in and around the ARRL Ohio Section. It is published by the Section Manager Scott – N8SY and articles are submitted by cabinet members.

Once my article is published in the Journal, I will also make it available on my site with a link to the published edition.

You can receive the Journal and other Ohio Section news by joining the mailing list Scott has setup. You do not need to be a member of the ARRL, Ohio Section, or even a ham to join the mailing list. Please sign up!

If you are an ARRL member and reside in the Ohio Section, update your mailing preferences to receive Ohio Section news in your inbox. Those residing outside the section will need to use the mailing list link above.
Updating your ARRL profile will deliver news from the section where you reside (if the leadership chooses to use this method).
Go to www.arrl.org and logon.
Click Edit your Profile.
You will be taken to the Edit Your Profile page. On the first tab Edit Info, verify your Email address is correct.
Click the Edit Email Subscriptions tab.
Check the News and information from your Division Director and Section Manager box.
Click Save.

Now without further ado…


Read the full edition at: http://arrl-ohio.org/news/2018/OSJ-Jun-18.pdf

THE TECHNICAL COORDINATOR
Jeff Kopcak – TC
k8jtk@arrl.net

DSCF5081 K8JTKHey gang,

The Wood County Amateur Radio Club (which I’m a member) has a Fusion digital net on Thursday nights. Longtime club member Phil – W8PSK, posed the question: can I operate a Wires-X node mobile from my RV?

A little background about Wires-X setups. Wires-X is part of Yaesu’s System Fusion and is a closed Internet linking system. Only Yaesu hardware is allowed. Other digital devices like the OpenSpot, DVMega, and Pi-Star are not permitted. The obvious answer, if it were a viable choice, would be to use a digital hotspot but Yaesu doesn’t allow them. Wires-X hardware requirements include: a Yaesu FTM-100D or FTM-400XD radio or Fusion repeater, Yaesu HRI-200 interface between the radio and PC, a Windows 7 or 10 PC (yes, it must be Windows machine), and an Internet connection with a global IP address. A common example of a global IP address is one provided to you by your DSL, Cable, or Fiber provider. This IP is accessible from anywhere on the Internet and (generally) unrestricted. Lastly, another radio is required to use the Wires-X node locally.

Having setup my own Wires-X node in addition to LEARA’s repeater node, my first assumption was Phil would be able to connect out from his node in the RV to any other Wires-X node, but no other node could connect to him. This theory was based on the need to open or “port forward” 7 ports from the Internet to the PC running the Wires-X software. Port forwarding is a computer networking method used to allow data to bypass a firewall which would normally block that communication. Those that run websites from their network or have access to IP cameras while away from home will have these port forwards configured in their router.

Phil planned on using his smartphone as the Internet connection to the PC. Modern Smartphones have the ability to use the cellular network to serve an Internet connection to other devices like a laptop or Raspberry Pi via Wi-Fi connection. This is labeled something like “Mobile Hotspot” or “Personal Hotspot” in the phone. Standard disclaimer: check with your provider first in case there is an extra charge for this service or bandwidth cap. Bandwidth is standard for a Voice over Internet system at about 60kpbs/connection or about 30 MB/hour/connection with constant TX/RX. Port forwarding is never allowed on consumer cell plans. The unknown was can the Wires-X software connect without the port forwarding outlined in the configuration.

I tested my theory to see if the Wires-X software functioned by modifying a known working Wires-X configuration. I closed (temporarily disabled) the forwarded ports on my network. This meant communication over those ports would now be blocked, similar to that of a cellular connection. Then restarted the Wires-X software and hoped for the best. Was my theory correct? Drumroll please… the answer was: no. Wah waaaah. Not having the required ports forwarded to the PC did not allow the software to receive data from the Wires-X network. That result almost killed any hope of Phil using Wires-X mobile in his RV.

Phil was determined and we looked further into different solutions. VPNs were an option because they can often bypass network restrictions. However, a small number of VPN providers allowed forwarding ports as part of their service. Reviews weren’t positive and VPNs tend to easily fail with unstable data connections as one might have while mobile. Not something to be messing around with while driving. It introduced another point-of-failure in this setup. Hilariously enough, there were applications that touted the ability to ‘open ports on your phone.’ These wouldn’t work because it might open ports on the phone, almost assuredly the provider was blocking any ports upstream to the phone. Verizon offers a business account which allows port forwards but there is a one-time setup cost of $500 plus the service. Yeah, no. I suggested asking in the Yahoo group. John – N9UPC, Fusion representative for Yaesu, reinforced the conclusion I came to: operating mobile wasn’t possible because wireless providers don’t provide a global IP. Though Phil posted his question in late April, oddly enough John did not give any indication to an announcement at Dayton. One solution that looked promising used AMPRNet which is block of Internet routable IP addresses for ham radio operators. It could give us the global IP address we needed. After finding out more, someone else’s data center was being used and we weren’t sure Phil would have permission to use it as well.

Sensing no way to get around the port forward restriction, an announcement came during the Fusion forum at Dayton that (we hope) will solve Phil’s problem. Yaesu is going to release an update in the coming months that will allow the FT2DR, FTM-100D, as well as the FTM-400XD to operate as a portable node. With additional cables, these radios would connect directly to a computer for Wires-X operation without the need of an HRI-200. This was created specifically for mobile setups and users who don’t have the ability to forward the necessary ports (like in a hotel). Ding, ding, ding, we have a winner!

A couple caveats: purchase of an HRI-200 is still required. To use the portable node, you still need to register on the Wires-X system which requires a serial number from an HRI-200. The portable setup will not have ‘all of the features’ of the traditional setup such as hosting a Room (round table-type node) or messaging. Purchase of two cables is required to make the necessary connections: an SCU-19 USB and CT-44 audio cable. It wasn’t clear if both are needed for the 100/400 radios. There are no plans “at this time” to integrate any other Fusion radio other than the three listed above.

It would have been nice to have a heads-up about this new option before we spent time researching a solution. I think this will solve Phil’s problem and get him mobile with Wires-X. Announcement from the Fusion form, Dayton Hamvention 2018.

Speaking of digital hotspots, my favorite has been discontinued: the openSPOT. Saw it disappeared form dealer sites just after Dayton. June 8th it was removed from the SharkRF website with an announcement that a new product was going to be introduced soon. What could it be??! If you need a digital hotspot device today, I really like the ZUMSpot with the Pi-Star software. I picked up one with a case at Dayton. More info in future articles.

The next big ham holiday, Field Day, is right around the corner. Get out and join your club or find a club to join if you’re not a member of one. It’s a great time to bring friends and get them excited about ham radio. Hams that come out get bitten by the bug to expand their station or learn a new mode. Check the Field Day Locator for operations taking place near you. Sending 10 messages over RF from your site gets you 100 points – including Winlink messages. I love to receive messages about your setup, stations operating, or social activities taking place. These can be sent via the National Traffic System (NTS) or Winlink – K8JTK at Winlink.org – to my station. Winlink post about Field Day points.

With July around the corner, two of my favorite events will be kicking-off soon. The 13 Colonies Special Event is coming up July 1 – 7, along with the RAC Canada Day Contest on July 1st only.

Thanks for reading and 73… de Jeff – K8JTK

Ohio Section Journal – The Technical Coordinator – May 2018 edition

One of the responsibilities of the Technical Coordinator in the Ohio Section is to submit something for the Section Journal. The Section Journal covers Amateur Radio related things happening in and around the ARRL Ohio Section. It is published by the Section Manager Scott – N8SY and articles are submitted by cabinet members.

Once my article is published in the Journal, I will also make it available on my site with a link to the published edition.

You can receive the Journal and other Ohio Section news by joining the mailing list Scott has setup. You do not need to be a member of the ARRL, Ohio Section, or even a ham to join the mailing list. Please sign up!

If you are an ARRL member and reside in the Ohio Section, update your mailing preferences to receive Ohio Section news in your inbox. Those residing outside the section will need to use the mailing list link above.
Updating your ARRL profile will deliver news from the section where you reside (if the leadership chooses to use this method).
Go to www.arrl.org and logon.
Click Edit your Profile.
You will be taken to the Edit Your Profile page. On the first tab Edit Info, verify your Email address is correct.
Click the Edit Email Subscriptions tab.
Check the News and information from your Division Director and Section Manager box.
Click Save.

Now without further ado…


Read the full edition at: http://arrl-ohio.org/news/2018/OSJ-May-18.pdf

THE TECHNICAL COORDINATOR
Jeff Kopcak – TC
k8jtk@arrl.net

DSCF5081 K8JTKHey gang,

Another Hamvention has come to a close. My dad (N8ETP) and I were able to make it again. We were joined by my mom (N8GTK) this year too. This was her second Hamvention. She got to experience one at Hara Arena and now one at the Greene County Fairgrounds. Last year my dad and I parked on site at the fairgrounds. We didn’t get stuck but took about 3 car washes to get the mud off. This year we decided to park off-site and were bussed in. I remember being able to fit in the isles and seats last time I was on a school bus – not so much this time. Off-site parking was the better decision. Our site at Young’s Dairy was not nearly as muddy as the fairgrounds parking lot was this year or last. Other off-site locations offer a paved lot if parking in a field is not your thing.

On Friday, the busses dropped off and picked up in a remote area away from the main entrance. Farm tractors transported Hamvention goers to the main entrance with hayride trailers. This lasted a day because rain combined with heavy machinery and grassy fields turned it into – you guessed it – a mud wrestling pit. Saturday, the busses dropped us off in one of the parking lots and then we rode golf carts to the main gate. Beats being stuck.

Being the second year at the new location, it’s still a work-in-progress. Improvements have been made over last year and there is still more in the pipeline. An addition to the flea market was crushed asphalt and gravel isles. This should have improved conditions in the flea market though I can’t say for sure. We started in the flea market on Friday but about an hour later it started raining buckets and we headed indoors unfortunately not to return. Rearranging the indoor facilities provided a much larger covered eating area. The tent used for outdoor vendors was much nicer. The ground might have gotten wet underneath but I don’t think occupants got the rain coming in through the sides as they did last year. Another building is expected to be constructed for next year.

Despite the wet weather, it still seemed like attendance was up. It’s kind of a bummer not being able to walk away with a new purchase at the hamfest. A couple purchases needed to be shipped because vendors didn’t have the room but it’s a good problem to have as Hamvention continues to bring in vendors from around the world. According to the conversations I had, next year will be dry and all the problems will be solved! Don’t hold me to the ‘being dry’ part.

VOA Bethany Relay Station (Wikipedia)

For a couple years, one thing I’ve wanted to do while in Dayton was visit the Voice of America (VOA) museum. This year, with the three of us, we made it a point and it was well worth a visit. I believe the first time I ever heard of Voice of America was in a college Telecommunications class. We had an assignment to listen to VOA over an evening and write our thoughts about what we heard in the broadcast. This was in the mid-2000’s and the VOA was available as an online stream. Grated many people have not heard of VOA which is understandable because its target audience isn’t U.S. citizens. The primary intent of VOA was broadcast programming to be consumed by foreign audiences to help influence public opinion abroad regarding the U.S. Propaganda, if you will.

My primary operating interests are digital modes and using computers but I have a healthy respect and am very interested in the history of radio. There’s a lot of radio history in our own backyard. Down in West Chester, Ohio are two very famous transmission facilities: WLW and the Voice of America Bethany Relay station. WLW is famous for being the highest power transmitter ever used in the U.S. on broadcast AM radio. Between 1934 and 1939 WLW operated at a power output of 500 kW. The transmitter they operated was serial number 1. In 1938, a congressional resolution was introduced which limited broadcast AM transmission to 50 kW, which is still the current maximum power output. The WLW tower is also rare featuring the unique “Blaw-Knox” diamond shape.

Adjacent to the WLW tower is the VOA facility known as the Bethany Relay Station. In 1944, the facility began transmitting American programming on shortwave frequencies primarily into Europe during World War II. They could broadcast into Africa and South America as well. The site had 6 transmitters built by the same company that operated the WLW transmitter, Crosley Radio. Four stations were 200 kW and two were 50 kW. Originally the facility sat on a 625-acre site built inland so it couldn’t be easily attacked like other VOA sites close to the ocean might be. Due to a shift to satellite technology, the station was decommissioned in 1994. Much of the property was turned over to the Metroparks and is now a recreational park. The transmission towers and antennas have all been demolished. The transmission building and antenna switching facility is all that remains which is now home to a museum and ham radio club.

WLW Engineering Azimuthal Projection Map

The National VOA Museum of Broadcasting and the West Chester Amateur Radio Association, WC8VOA, preserve and care for the Bethany Relay Station. The museum chronicles the history of VOA and how it played key roles in forming public opinion of the U.S. during wartime. It featured a fitting tribute to the last known surviving engineer for WLW and VOA, Clyde Haehnle, who passed away last month. An azimuthal projection map, which Clyde drew, is featured in many places. This map shows the distance and angle from Cincinnati to any point on the globe which was used to direct VOA antennas to any part of the world. Another room features the history of the Crosley Broadcasting Corporation with tubes on display used in the WLW 500 kW transmitter and types of radios consumers would have used in their homes. A radio timeline shows the history of radio from the spark gap to the iPad. Opposite those displays are the broadcaster’s museum which featured a couple pieces of history from the Cleveland area, which I was surprised to see.

Of the old VOA facility, there is still a shortwave transmitter on display complete with control panel, the newer of the two control rooms where operators could select programming broadcast over each transmitter, and the antenna switching matrix. If all that isn’t enough, you can operate the WC8VOA club station in the old control room of the VOA.

We could have easily spent a half-day there because there was so much to look at, watch, and listen. This was an amazing facility with a lot of history between WLW and VOA. The VOA Museum of Broadcasting and West Chester Amateur Radio Association where such gracious hosts. They were around to answer questions and pass along the history of this station. If you’re in the area or if not, make plans for Hamvention next year to spend [more than] a couple hours at the VOA facility. It’s open every Saturday and Sunday 1 – 4pm with extended hours during Hamvention.

More information and videos on the VOA:
West Chester Amateur Radio Association (WC8VOA): http://wc8voa.org/
National Voice of America Museum of Broadcasting: http://www.voamuseum.org/
Voice of America Museum Special (AmateurLogic.TV): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3w_ZXRJol_4

Clyde Haehnle, Remembering WLW & VOA (AmateurLogic.TV): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lnw-STvoj20

1992-04-24 Voice of America Bethany (Mason) Ohio Relay Station [in operation]: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PiGmEjH4dKE

Thanks for reading and 73… de Jeff – K8JTK

Ohio Section Journal – The Technical Coordinator – April 2018 edition

One of the responsibilities of the Technical Coordinator in the Ohio Section is to submit something for the Section Journal. The Section Journal covers Amateur Radio related things happening in and around the ARRL Ohio Section. It is published by the Section Manager Scott – N8SY and articles are submitted by cabinet members.

Once my article is published in the Journal, I will also make it available on my site with a link to the published edition.

You can receive the Journal and other Ohio Section news by joining the mailing list Scott has setup. You do not need to be a member of the ARRL, Ohio Section, or even a ham to join the mailing list. Please sign up!

If you are an ARRL member and reside in the Ohio Section, update your mailing preferences to receive Ohio Section news in your inbox. Those residing outside the section will need to use the mailing list link above.
Updating your ARRL profile will deliver news from the section where you reside (if the leadership chooses to use this method).
Go to www.arrl.org and logon.
Click Edit your Profile.
You will be taken to the Edit Your Profile page. On the first tab Edit Info, verify your Email address is correct.
Click the Edit Email Subscriptions tab.
Check the News and information from your Division Director and Section Manager box.
Click Save.

Now without further ado…


Read the full edition at: http://arrl-ohio.org/news/2018/OSJ-Apr-18.pdf

THE TECHNICAL COORDINATOR
Jeff Kopcak – TC
k8jtk@arrl.net

DSCF5081 K8JTKHey gang,

In all the ragging (er, discussion?) on Windows 10 last month, Bill – K8RWH had some good points and questions about Linux that I decided to write a follow up this month. There is a lot to parse, especially different terminology. The most useful website for Linux information is called DistroWatch, short for Distribution Watch. Most of the information here will come from that site. Let’s get to it.

History

Linux came out of the Unix operating system implemented by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie (both of AT&T Bell Laboratories) in 1969. “Linux began in 1991 with the commencement of a personal project by Finnish student Linus Torvalds to create a new free operating system kernel. Since then, the resulting Linux kernel has been marked by constant growth throughout its history. Since the initial release of its source code in 1991, it has grown from a small number of C (programming language) files under a license prohibiting commercial distribution to the 4.15 version in 2018 with more than 23.3 million lines of [code] … ” (Wikipedia).

Tux

I’d be remiss if I didn’t mention the official Linux mascot. “Torvalds announced in 1996 that there would be a mascot for Linux, a penguin. This was due to the fact when they were about to select the mascot, Torvalds mentioned he was bitten by a little penguin on a visit to the National Zoo & Aquarium in Canberra, Australia. Larry Ewing provided the original draft of today’s well known mascot based on this description. The name Tux was suggested by James Hughes as derivative of Torvalds’ UniX, along with being short for tuxedo, a type of suit with color similar to that of a penguin” (Wikipedia).

Crash course in Linux terminology

GNU/GPL – software licensing methodologies frequently used by Linux and Unix variants.

Open Source – anyone can see the building blocks of a project known as the source code. This is beneficial because anyone with skills can fix and improve upon an open source program.

Kernel – is the core to any operating system (not only Linux). It interacts with and controls the computer’s hardware (mouse, keyboard, monitor/graphics, hard drive, USB devices, network). It is the lowest level of the operating system.

Operating System – collection of kernel and software that make a computing device work. Most operating systems include drivers, text editor, file manager, and a method for installing & removing applications (known as a “Package Manager” in Linux).

Architecture – type of processor an operating system can run. 64-bit, 32-bit processors, Raspberry Pi and mobile devices are examples.

Live CD/Medium – the operating system can be run from a CD or USB drive without installing to a hard drive. This is useful in testing different operating systems or to aid in recovering an inaccessible system.

Dual-boot – in contrast to “live CD,” installation of one or more operating systems on the same computer. My experience: install Windows first, then Linux. The Linux boot-loader plays nice with Windows but not the other way around. Reinstalling Windows will also break the Linux boot-loader. It can be repaired but will stress your Google and command line-fu skills.

Distribution – similar to “Operating System” but often targeted for a specific purpose or category: servers, desktops, beginners, education, gaming, multimedia, security, utilities, telephony, etc.

Checksum or Hash – applies an algorithm to data. It is used to track errors introduced in transmitting data or storing data. Checksum programs are standard in Linux operating systems. A third-party program like HashTab or QuickHash GUI are needed to verify a checksum in Windows.

Desktop environment – how a user interacts with multiple applications at once. This is a matter of personal preference. Popular desktop environments are: Cinnamon, GNOME, KDE, MATE, and Xfce.

Popular Linux Distributions

DistroWatch has just short of 900 Linux distributions in their database. Over 300 are considered active (updated in the last 2 years). Only about a handful are useful to average users. For a complete guide see “A Guide to Choosing a Distribution.”

Linux Mint

Linux Mint – launched in 2006 to address many of the drawbacks associated with a more technical operating system such as Linux. Using the Ubuntu distribution as a base, many beginner enhancements were created for usability. I had read about security concerns with Mint and began to steer users away from it. However, DistroWatch published a “Myths and Misunderstandings” debunking many of those points. If you’re a noobie and want to dive into Linux as an alternative operating system, start with Mint.

Ubuntu – Launched a few years earlier in 2004, this project took off faster than any other distribution and was touted as the way to get average people to use Linux. Learning from the mistakes of other projects and taking a professional approach to its users made it a popular choice. Excellent web-based documentation and an easy to use bug reporting facility was created. Though frequent major changes and the Unity interface – more suited for mobile devices – have driven users away.

Elementary OS – This one is for Mac users. It emulates MacOS and puts a lot of focus into ascetics.

Debian – base for the above and 120 other Linux distributions. Debian is remarkably stable due to its high level of quality control. It has support for many software packages and processor types making it a great choice for older systems. Due to that level of processor support it lacks newer technologies.

In the 300 other active Linux distributions, specialized versions serve an intended purpose:

Windows Compatibility

Users who’ve switched to Linux or Linux users that need to run a Windows app might ask: can I run Windows applications on Linux? Yes, there are a couple ways to accomplish this.

Run a virtual machine program like VirtualBox. A virtual machine emulates hardware and the functionality of a physical computer. Similar to dual-booting it requires a full installation of the desired (guest) operating system. Emulation is resource intensive for the physical (host) operating system hardware. It doesn’t make much sense to have a multi-gigabyte Windows virtual install to run a small application.

WINE running Media Player Classic and SumatraPDF (Wikipedia)

This is where WINE comes into play. Wine stands for Wine Is Not an Emulator. It’s not a virtual machine but rather a compatibility layer to translate Windows system calls into Linux system calls. WINE takes a considerable amount of configuring but programs like PlayOnLinux and Winetricks make life much easier. Neither solution is perfect and won’t succeeded in cases of complex applications or ones requiring specialized hardware.

In terms of ham radio, Windows was the overwhelming platform of choice for Morse Code and digital mode applications because everyone was using it. Older Windows only applications (MMSSTV, DigiPan) are going to run well on that platform. The good news is programs like Fldigi and QSSTV are viable replacements on Linux and, in many cases, better than their dedicated Windows counterpart. In addition, the Ubuntu package manager has an entire category dedicated to Amateur Radio applications. If you’re someone whose fed up with the badness and frustrations of Windows 10, give Linux a try.

Thanks for reading and 73… de Jeff – K8JTK

Ohio Section Journal – The Technical Coordinator – March 2018 edition

One of the responsibilities of the Technical Coordinator in the Ohio Section is to submit something for the Section Journal. The Section Journal covers Amateur Radio related things happening in and around the ARRL Ohio Section. It is published by the Section Manager Scott – N8SY and articles are submitted by cabinet members.

Once my article is published in the Journal, I will also make it available on my site with a link to the published edition.

You can receive the Journal and other Ohio Section news by joining the mailing list Scott has setup. You do not need to be a member of the ARRL, Ohio Section, or even a ham to join the mailing list. Please sign up!

If you are an ARRL member and reside in the Ohio Section, update your mailing preferences to receive Ohio Section news in your inbox. Those residing outside the section will need to use the mailing list link above.
Updating your ARRL profile will deliver news from the section where you reside (if the leadership chooses to use this method).
Go to www.arrl.org and logon.
Click Edit your Profile.
You will be taken to the Edit Your Profile page. On the first tab Edit Info, verify your Email address is correct.
Click the Edit Email Subscriptions tab.
Check the News and information from your Division Director and Section Manager box.
Click Save.

Now without further ado…


Read the full edition at: http://arrl-ohio.org/news/2018/OSJ-Mar-18.pdf

THE TECHNICAL COORDINATOR
Jeff Kopcak – TC
k8jtk@arrl.net

DSCF5081 K8JTKHey gang,

Windows 10: two years later. Last time I talked about Windows 10, Microsoft was giving the operating system away as a free upgrade. It represented a drastic shift in Microsoft’s business model. I’ll cover some of the decisions surrounding Windows 10 and my experiences with this new model of delivering and updating Windows. Beware, a lot of complaining lies ahead. You have been warned 🙂

Microsoft is transforming Windows 10 to “software as a service” (often written as SaaS) over previous versions. The software is licensed to the user. Microsoft takes full responsibility for maintaining, updating, and adding new features. Though this means users have little chance to stop major updates from applying and no chance to stop additional applications from being installed or removed. They are applying the phone model of updating to Windows 10 across all platforms. Microsoft wants to handle all updates and wants apps to be downloaded from the Microsoft Store (like the Google Play Store or Apple App Store).

In principal, this seems like a good idea because users don’t have to do anything. They will always be updated with the latest and greatest operating system and apps. This model fits almost no users of Windows 10. Average users get frustrated with having to apply updates weekly. According to Paul Thurrott, journalist and blogger who follows Microsoft, he stated that ‘65% of Microsoft’s revenue comes from enterprise users who don’t want to update but every 5-10 years. Instead of adapting to that service model, they force users to conform to [Microsoft’s] business model.’

This shift includes realizing that most Windows users think: when I buy a new computer, I get Windows. These are not power-users like me.

For Windows to be available on every type of device (PC, tablet, mobile, Xbox, IoT, Hololens) Microsoft created this platform for developers called UWP. Universal Windows Platform apps are meant to be designed once, put in the Microsoft Store, and run on all device types. Ultimate goal was to replace all desktop apps with a UWP app. The Microsoft Store would take care of installing the latest version when updates were available. When tied to a Microsoft Account, apps would be installed on any devices signed in using that account. No one is using this platform. Microsoft created apps in UWP for Windows 10 but they’re proof-of-concept apps at best, toy apps at worst. The Photos app is unusable. If they wanted developers to be drawn to this platform, Microsoft should have created some really awesome looking and functioning apps to show off the abilities of UWP. Instead they created apps that no one wants to use largely because the platform is not mature.

Windows Media Center

Microsoft does come up with really good ideas. Then they get rid of them. In the XP days, who wasn’t using Windows Movie Maker? It made some really good-looking edited videos like home movies, class projects, or to promote a brand on a website. Gone. Windows Media Center was loved by many because it turned an ordinary PC into a media powerhouse with the ability to record TV programs, watch DVDs, play music, show photos, and stream movies from Netflix. Gone. Paint was on the chopping block for the Fall Creators update. It got so much push back from diehards they decided to keep it and added a 3D ribbon so that it can do 3D modeling. Eh.

I think Windows 7 is the best version of Windows despite the severe lack of hardware and driver support. For example, SSDs (solid-state-device, aka non-spinning hard drive) needed deep internal settings need to be adjusted in Windows 7 so it would not wear out the SSD faster than expected. Windows 10 knows what to do with an SSD out-of-the-box, even in a RAID configuration.

I love that Windows 10 is stable. Running it on fairly modern hardware, it just works. My main machine runs 10 and was installed from scratch at the end of May 2016. This is unheard of for me. Every couple of months I was restoring a backup of Windows 7, likely due to a failed driver update. In the two years since installation I went through a motherboard failure. When it died, I built a new system. I did a drive-to-drive copy of my Windows installation and data onto new hard drives. Previous versions of Windows never handled drastic hardware changes very well. It would get stuck in the startup process and reboot over and over again. Windows 10 detected my new hardware, installed some drivers, after maybe a reboot or two I was up and (still am) running on that initial install.

That’s where my love for Windows 10 ends.

I don’t like the two-control panel-like settings areas called “Control Panel” and “Settings.” It’s too scattered, if you can find the setting at all. I swear there are changes just to make changes. In one update an option is over here, the next update it is someplace else. This constant changing makes finding solutions online a real bear. Settings, and in particular privacy settings, are often defaulted when a major update is applied.

I hate the forced upgrades and reboots. Users complain, and Microsoft admits, they were forced into Windows upgrades when the user specified to delay the update. There were complaints of updates rebooting during ‘active hours’ and the solution was to modify the Windows Registry. The Registry stores low-level settings of the operating system and installed applications. Making an error editing the registry can cause irreversible damage. “Active hours” is another dumb idea. ‘Hey tell us when you think you’re going to be using your PC and we won’t apply updates.’ Except that didn’t happen. Windows 10 would reboot causing many hours of lost productivity. Have a task or job running overnight? It’s not more important than a Windows update! Granted many of these issues come and go but they are major annoyances. They leave users feeling like they don’t have control because a decision they made was not honored.

Microsoft is thinking like a developer. Developers will tell you “this is progress.” This happens a lot. It’s a real problem. Progress is not removing options for users. Their idea of progress may not align with the majority of users either. Paul Thurrott believes that Microsoft is intentionally making Windows 10 bad. “I actually think they’re doing this on purpose to sabotage this business from within … so they can move on to the thing they want to do which is cloud computing … It’s almost that bad.” (What The Tech, ep 363).

Classic Shell

I’m really getting tired of replacing bad implementations with functional addons. To my chagrin, Classic Shell is no longer in development which was my preferred Start Menu replacement. These reasons should sound familiar: “Windows 10 is being updated way too frequently (twice a year) and each new version changes something that breaks Classic Shell. And … Each new version of Windows moves further away from the classic Win32 programming model, which allowed room for a lot of tinkering. The new ways things are done make it very difficult to achieve the same customizations.” Luckily the source code was released making it easy for someone or a group to pick up where that project left off. Check alternativeTo other Start Menu replacement options.

I would love to move my Windows 10 desktop to Linux. There are apps that don’t run well in a virtual machine or hardware apps that can’t run under a compatibility layer like Wine. Windows it is for now. I have moved my laptops over to Linux and have been loving it. Linux has its own issues but if one distribution doesn’t work, try another. I do have Windows virtual machines installed for software defined radio apps and Office mostly. My preferred Linux distro is Fedora because it had the least amount of problems running specialized apps in a VM. It’s not for the faint of heart either as it’s considered a ‘bleeding edge’ operating system. Problems often make to the stable update channel but seem to be fixed relatively quickly.

This is the dividing line. Are you willing to change or is this too much?

Thanks for reading and 73… de Jeff – K8JTK